Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Sch21 Communication Essay Example for Free

Sch21 Communication Essay Communication plays a major part in our everyday life, if we did not communicate with each other we could not learn, develop relationships or even progress and it is very important to make sure that the best provision is created for all. Different methods can be used as a way of communicating but the way we express it can have different effects on the children, parents and staff that we work with. When communicating with children it is important to give them your full attention as this encourages them to express how their feeling and to explore by asking questions because if by any chance you become distracted while communicating to a child by turning the other way while their are speakingthey may feel that what they are trying to say or ask you may be unimportant to you and this may cause the child to lack in confidence when speaking to another adult or child and may become reluctant in expressing themselves or asking questions. Adults can also demonstrate a good use of language and encourage children to express themselves and become confident in themselves by showing them that you are actively listening and showing them that they are valued by using your body language and facial expressions this is done by socially interacting with the child by getting down to their level and establishing eye contact, smiling attentivly and nodding encouraginaly to them. It is always important to make sure that good communication is kept with the child because if its not then the child may find it difficult to interact with you and this may affect his or hers learning and development. It is also important that your work is of its highest standard and that the child is benifiting from this. Good communication skills are always essential when working with parents, being positive towards them by showing them good eye contact, smiling and body language. It is also important when communicating with parents that you are giving them time to be heard and are paying full attention to them. When possitive relationships are formed between collegues and parents it is easier to trust, support help and advise. Parents will feel alot more confident about leaving their child in a setting if the staff are friendly and approachable by being this way you can recieve the mutual respect and develop a professional relationship by showing that you have interest and priority in their childs learning and development although it is as equally as important that while you are developing a professional friendly relationship with the parent that it doesnt become personal and develop into a friendship. Good communication is the key to establish a possitive relationship with your colleagues and other professionals in the setting it has a major impact on the daily running of the setting it is important to be polite show respect and be highly professional with anyone that you work along with. It is important to respect other peoples views regardless of your own personal opinion of them. If you choose to be unproffesional and dismiss other peoples views and opinions this may result in result between the adults and this can be easily picked up by the children and if communication is poor between the colleagues this can have a negative effect on the setting , while a good relationship between colleagues will create a comfortable and happy enviroment for allthose involved in the setting and they will feel valued which will create a strong proffessional relationship and will allow the children to learn and develop efficently, good teamwork depends on good communication. . 3 Give an explanation of why it is important to observe an individuals reactions when communicating with them. It is important to observe an individuals reactions when communicating with them because only around 70-80% of communication is verbal and if you are not paying attention to the persons facial expressions and bodily reactions then you will be missing out on a large part of the communication because not all people are able to communicate verbally maybe they dont know the language or just dont have the confidence, perhaps the individual may not have the confidence to confront the person therefore would use other ways of communicating.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Human Resource Practices At Hbl Commerce Essay

Human Resource Practices At Hbl Commerce Essay Habib Bank Limited (HBL) commenced its operations in the year 1947. It has the privilege of being the first bank to establish itself in Pakistan after independence. From there on, the bank has taken leaps and bounds and has shown tremendous growth in the field of banking. It has now because the largest private sector bank in Pakistan. It has customer base of around five million people. HBL has around 1705 branches across the countries. HBL also has international presence in around 26 countries. The bank has subsidiaries in Hong Kong and United Kingdom, it has affiliates in Nepal, Nigeria, Kenya, and Kyrgyzstan. HBL also has representative offices in China, and Iran. The vast international network makes HBL the largest domestic multinational. Such achievements strengthen the position of the bank not only in the domestic market but also brighten the image of the bank in the international market. The company is now planning to expand its operations in UAE, UK, South and Central Asia, Africa, and the Far East. HBL has 55 branches worldwide. The commodities offered by HBL include product offerings and services in Retail and Consumer Banking. The bank has the honor of holding the largest Corporate Banking portfolio in Pakistan with an active Investment Banking arm. Small Medium Enterprise (SME) and Agricultural lending programs and other banking services are made available to customers residing in urban and rural areas. The company leads the market by holding a domestic market share of 40 percent. HBL continues to dominate the domestic banking sector with a major share-holding in foreign remittances and loans to SMEs, traders, and farmers. HBL is currently rated AAA (Long term) and A-1+ (Short term) with stable outlook and has a balance sheet size of USD 13.82 billion. It is the first Pakistani bank to raise Tier II Capital from external sources. (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) HBL has always led the market with example of quality performance and extra ordinary treatment with the clients. It has adapted with the changing times and evolved its practices as well for the betterment of the company. The company has its headquarters in Habib Bank Plaza, Karachi. Company History HBL was founded by late Mr. Ismail Habib on 25th August, 1942 at Bombay. At that time it was the first Muslim bank to be established in the Indian Sub-continent. It was initiated with a capital of Rs 2.5 Million with a mere 12 branch network. (Ayaz, 2011) Prior to Pakistans independence, Quaid-e-Azam during his campaigns realized the importance of a bank that was going to cater to the needs of the Muslims residing in Hindustan. He requested the Habib family to establish a commercial bank. Habib Bank Limited was thus created in 1941. The head office was located in Bombay (now Mumbai). The fixed capital was 25,000 rupees. The bank played a vital role in utilizing the funds from the Muslim community to finance The All-Indian Muslim League for the establishment of Pakistan. HBL also helped the refugees who were hurt in the communal riots and violence that preceded the departure of British. After independence HBL shifted its headquarters to Karachi. Habib Bank Limiteds first international branch was setup in Colombo, Sri Lanka, in 1951. The bank started its international from this year and never looked back after that. In 1975, the company built the Habib Bank Limited building in Karachi to celebrate its 25th anniversary. (Habib Bank Lmited, 2012) The company was nationalized in Zia-ul-Haqs era. Prior to nationalization, HBL had a domestic market share of about 40 percent. After nationalization HBL continued to dominate the market and held a major share in inward foreign remittances (55percent) and loans to small industries. The company expanded its international boundaries and covered USA, Singapore, Oman, Belgium, Seychelles, Maldives, and the Netherlands. (Habib Bank Lmited, 2012) A decade after nationalization, HBLs annual profit was more than twice the combined profit of all the other commercial banks operating in Pakistan at that time which included United Bank Limited, National Bank of Pakistan, Allied Bank limited and Muslim Commercial Bank. HBL had been a source of rapid economic development in the state since its establishment. It financed various government transport schemes, agricultural schemes and leases over the years and remained the largest and one of the most profitable government entities till its privatization. (Ayaz, 2011) It is believed that HBL presented a blank cheque to Muhammad Ali Jinnah at the time of birth of Pakistan. The bank also looked over the initial financial matters of the state by assuming the status of the state treasury till the state bank came into existence. HBL therefore had been very close to the government of Pakistan since it was established due to these significant reasons. Vision Enabling people to advance with confidence and success (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) Habib Bank Limited wishes to see its customers excel in their lives with confidence. The vision of HBL is targeted towards the domestic market and focuses on fulfilling their needs and requirements in order to give them satisfaction, confidence, and the comfort they deserve. According to Rieches, 2012 the vision statement of a coporation provides a platform to inform competent personnel, create strategic alliances, and most importantly loyal customers. It is really a depiction of desired destination. The destination that the corporation wishes to arrive at. It is a long term long goal established by a corporation which reflects where the it wishes to see itself in the future. HBL vision statement is not a very strong vision statement. It does not clearly define where the company wishes to itself in the future. The vision statements are usually one liners and within this limitation the long term goal is defined. HBL however has failed to do so. From the vision statement the readers are not able to gauge about the future plans of the company and what it wants for itself. It does talk about its customers and their benefit. Customers is just one very small part of it. The corporate goal is the most significant thing to be mentioned in the vision statement. The focus of the company only remains on its customers. The vision to help the customers grow is in the right direction but the other stake holders are being ignored. That however is not a good strategy. It does not mention its shareholders, future plans, furture expansions etc. It also does not mention whether the company wants to remain the market leader or not. There is immense competition in the local market and it is no longer easy to survive in this fierce competition without having a crystal clear vision. The vision statement of the company is a weak statement and does nor portray or convey the future plans of the Bank. The statement leads to a lot of questions and it has a lot of ambiguities. Mission To make our customers prosper, our staff excel and create value for shareholders (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) The mission of HBL discusses its customers, employees, and the shareholders. The statement mentions three of the most important dimensions of the company. The main aim of a mission statement it to outline the short or medium term goals of an organization so that the employees can make strategies accordingly. Mission statements are given an enormous importance by the strategists. They consider it to be a reflection of how company is being operated and which direction it intends to take on. It is said to explain the core purpose of companys existence. Famous names in the field of strategic management consider mission statements to be a corner stone of an organization, and believe that a well thought out mission statements tells a lot about an organization (Wheelen Hunger, 2010). They identify nine important components of a mission statement. Though all of these might not be included, or be necessary, but their presence in the mission statement does make the mission statement powerful and gives it ability to make an impact a well. These components include customer, products and services, markets, technology, concern of survival, growth profitability, philosophy, self-concept, concern of public image and concern of employees (Adam, 2009). The researcher has used these nine components as gu ideline to analyze the existing mission statement of Habib Bank Limited. HBL mentions the first component, its customers first. It puts the customers and their betterment as a top priority. That is a very sound strategy. The bank is operation in a competitive market and if it does not follow a consumer centric approach then it is likely to experience downfall in its popularity. Therefore placing the customers as the first and foremost priority is a good strategy that is used by the company. The company indirectly promises to work for the success of its customers and make them prosperous in their life. There is another important dimension covered in the mission statement, the employees of the bank. The employees play a vital role in establishing the company in the market and eventually making it a leader. The mission statement of HBL talks about its employees and providing them with opportunities which would help them excel in their careers. This is a good strategy again. If a company is taking care of its employees it is very likely that the employees are going to work with loyalty for the betterment of the company. It mentions its customer, but more clarification would have been ideal. Its products and services are not clear at all, whereas other components of a powerful mission statement including markets, technology, concern of survival, growth and profitability, philosophy, self-concept, concern of public image and concern of employees is totally missing. Therefore this is a weak mission statement, which could be improved by incorporating these components in to it. Mission statements are often a little more elaborative, than the one under consideration, which conveys a much clearer picture of the organizations mission, purpose and objectives to its stakeholders. Habib Bank Limited should improve its mission statement. Make the component mentions in it more clear and make it more useful for its stakeholders. Values Our values are the fundamental principles that define our culture and are brought to life in our attitudes and behaviour. It is our values that make us unique and unmistakable. (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) Value of a company describes the traits and qualities that shape daily actions with the internal community, customers, and suppliers. These values shape corporate culture when they become deeply held driving forces and high priorities. (Rieches, 2012) Excellence This is at the core of everything we do. The markets in which we operate are becoming increasingly competitive, giving our customers an abundance of choice. Only through being the very best in terms of the service we offer, our products and premises can we hope to be successful and grow. (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) Integrity We are the leading bank in Pakistan and our success depends upon our trust. Our customers and society in general expect us to possess and steadfastly adhere to high moral principles and professional standards. (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) Customer Focus We understand fully the needs of our customers and adapt our products and services to meet these. We always strive to put the satisfaction of our customers first. (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) Meritocracy We believe in giving opportunities and advantages to our employees on the basis of their ability. We believe in rewarding achievement and in providing first-class career opportunities for all. (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) Progressiveness We believe in the advancement of the society through the adoption of the enlightened working practices, innovative new products and processes, and a spirit of enterprise. (Habib Bank Limited, 2012) Operational Structure HBL is one of the largest commercial bank of Pakistan. It accounts for a substantial share (20percent) of the total commercial banking market in Pakistan with a network of 1,705domestic branches; 55 overseas branches in 26 countries spread over Europe, the Middle East, Far East, Asia, Africa and the United States. (Ismail, 2009) HBL wholly owned Subsidiaries namely Habib Bank Financial Services (PVT) LTD. Karachi, Habib Finance International Ltd. (Hong Kong) and Habib Finance Australia Ltd. Sydney; two Joint Ventures namely Habib Nigeria Bank Ltd. (40%) and Himalayan Bank Ltd. (20%). Habib Bank Limited also has two representative offices in Iran and Egypt. (Ismail, 2009) Organization Structure Organization structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. There are six key elements that managers need to address: work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, decentralization, and formalization. (Robbins, Judge , Sanghi, 2010) Chairman President Board of Directors Senior Vice President Senior Vice President (Finance Audit) Senior Vice President (Asset Remedial) Senior Vice President (Corporate Banking) Senior Vice President (Corporate Banking, Financial Institute, Project Finance) Senior Vice President (Credit Policy) Senior Vice President (Retail Banking) Decision Making The decision making process at HBL is centralized. All the decisions are taken at the top level of the management without any consultation with the lower levels of the hierarchy. According to Famous names in the field of organization behavior define centralized decision making of being concentrated at a single point in the organization. (Robbins, Judge , Sanghi, 2010) The lower-level managers simply have to carry out the top managements directives. A centralized structure reflects a more rigid and strict culture at the organization. It is not considered to be a very responsive structure. Chain of Command The chain of command is an unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom. (Robbins, Judge , Sanghi, 2010) Chain of command identifies which employee is to report to whom. In HBL chain of command is clear and every employee knows their direct supervisor and to whom he can report. The company is using a unity of command chain of command. This particular type keeps the concept of unbroken line safe and ensures that the employee has one supervisor only to whom the employee is to report. If the unity of command gets broken then the employee might have to respond to the demands of two or more supervisors. Organizational Strategies There are primarily two main types of strategies adopted by the human resource department of an organization. In an interview with the Following are the two main strategies followed by the Human Resource department of Habib Bank Limited: Corporate Strategy HBL focus on two types of corporate strategies Geographic Expansion In this new era of 21st century it would not be wrong to call the world a global village. With the introduction of revolutionary technology the ends of the world are able to communicate with just a click. HBL is trying to capture different international markets by geographically expanding its operations. Diversification In todays competitive world only those companies are able to survive who are the fittest. The key is to either target a particular untapped market or target the needs of several different segments. The latter strategy ensures a wider coverage of the market and as a result increases the market share. HBL is following diversification strategy to tap different segments in the market which possess different needs. HBL introduces different services in intervals to entertain the needs of its diversified customer line. Business Unit Strategies Following are the business unit strategies for Habib Bank Limited: Cost Leadership The cost leadership strategy allows the firm to develop a competitive advantage in the market by keeping the costs as low as possible. The company is able to achieve cost leadership through efficient and effective production system. HBL follows this strategy by providing services to customers at costs lowers than the competitors. Differentiation Differentiation according to Micheal Porter is highlighting the distinctive competencies in a firm which would make the firm stand out from its competitors. HBL is following this strategy to provide unique services to its customer in the banking industry. Human Resource Department According to (Dessler Varkkey, 2012) Human resource is the process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and of attending to their labor relations, health and safety, and fairness concerns The human resource department of HBL tries to perform the same duties as mention by Dessler Varkkey. The department plays a significant role in creating value for the bank. HBL has a very efficient and active human resource department. It consists of competent employees who formulate strategies according to the local and global needs of the industry and employees. The department also skillfully tackles different problems related to the HR department. The department plays an active role in making the bank more successful every day. Over the years, HBL has adopted customer oriented approach in the recent years due to the changing market dynamics. In order to cater to the needs of these customers, the employees of HBL play a vital role. Therefore, in order to keep the employees happy and satisfied with their work, the HR department tries to take care of their needs and requirements in timely fashion. The department takes care of the companys asset the employees and hopes that the asset would pay the company back with full interest. Human Resource Strategies The Human resource department of Habib Bank Limited has six main strategies: Workflows In order to maximize the profits, HBL has planned a mix of long term and short term goals. These goals are designed in a manner that they would help HBL achieve a competitive edge over its competitors. The following measures are considered for this regard: Risk Management Unified Information Technology System Intensive Training and Professional Recruitment Re-organization of the Consumer and Retail Banking Business Information Technology system enhancement Product offering enhancement Advancement of Operations in urban areas Recruitment and Staffing Employment planning is where the recruitment and selection process commences at HBL. This process starts with the forecasting and planning of human resource required for the current and future positions. The process of selection and recruitment process is carried out tactfully and all the dimensions of the candidate are analyzed carefully. Future prospects are also identified while hiring the candidate. Skills, personality, attitude, knowledge are some of the aspects of the candidate which are judged carefully during the recruitment process. Vacant PositionRecruitment Process Forecasting of Positions Identify Pool of Candidates Develop pool of candidates Monitoring, Tailoring Development Screening / Short Listing Final Selection Recruitment and Selection Source: (Shahid, 2012) Employee Separations HBL has started a program which offers voluntary retirement schemes to employees. The employees get a golden handshake in return. The new term for golden handshake is Voluntary Separation Scheme (VSS). This scheme offers a special incentive to the employees who opt for the scheme and provides them a lump sum amount which equals to the salary of twelve months. Employees who work with the bank for a decade or more are entitled to the pension plan. This plan is going to help the employees in a manner that they will have no financial obligations after they have retired. Performance Appraisal Evaluating an employees current and past performance relative to its performance standards is called performance appraisal. A process that consolidates goal settings, performance appraisal and development into a single common system to ensure that employees performance is according to companys aims is called performance management. Ratings as practiced in HBL consist of following five kinds of factors. The following factors are put into consideration while reviewing the performance of an employee and making an appraisal: Productivity Attributes Technology Customer Service Personal Training According to (Dessler, A Framework for Human Resource Management, 2011), training refers to the methods employers use to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. HBL follows the follows a four step following process. The training process is as follows: Needs Analysis Identify job performance skills needed, assesses skills of prospective trainees and develop objectives. Instructional Design Produce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities. Implementation In this step the process gives an opportunity to the trainees to experience situations close to practical life.   Evaluation In this step the success or failure of the program is assessed. Source: (Shahid, 2012) Training and Development Programs HBL uses the following practices for training and development of its employees: Management Trainee Management Trainee Officer (MTO) program looks for highly motivated candidates who exhibit the potential to become future leaders. At HBL, the MTO program offers extensive interactive classroom training, on the job rotations and personal mentoring from senior management to provide a comprehensive learning experience. Management Associate Management Associate Program at HBL is a training and rotational program. The program particularly focuses on handling the branch banking requirements. It also provides numerous opportunities across HBLs network of Retail, Corporate, and Commercial Banking. Cash officers Candidates in this program are the bank ambassadors. Therefore they are required to have exemplary skills when interacting with the clients. The program involves an extensive one-month training period based on branch banking operations before placement in one of the branches. Types of Processes On the Job Training It is when the new employee learns about the job by actually doing it. Methods of on the job training are as follows: Understudy Job rotation Special assignments Action learning Understudy It is also known as coaching. Under this method the employee is placed under the supervision of a professional employed at the organization. The professional provides guidance to the new employee. At HBL, the trainee works under the supervision of a senior manager. The trainee may also work with the employee to be replaced. It takes place at all the levels of the job. New and old, both the types of employees are trained with the help of this method. Job Rotation Job rotation is when an employee is moved from one department to another to not only broaden the skills of the employees but also to analyze the strong and weak points of the employee. HBLs manager associate program makes use of this type of training. Special Assignments Special assignments are given to the employee by the supervisor. These are assignments or tasks to be done within the premises of the branch. Based on the way the task is completed the supervisor analyzed the performance of the employee. Action learning This method is only to be used for the employees based at the managerial level. Under this method, the employees are to work full time in one department. The employees are assigned to take care of the problems which arise and provide relevant solutions for the problems. Compensation The salaries, rewards, bonuses, and incentives on the basis of job and performances are called compensations. HBLs compensation and benefits strategy combines the need to maintain a high performance culture along with market competitiveness. According to performance each employ gets benefits and compensation. Tenure duration is less preferred as compared to the performance of employees. Employees are paid in two forms: Direct Payments These are the payment in the form of wages, salaries, incentives, commissions, and bonuses.   Indirect Payments This mode of payment includes the benefits and perks that are given to the employees for example medical, car, insurance, residence, car fuel, easy loans etc. Industry Analysis The Banking sector is an integral part of the countrys financial services industry. The banking sector experienced growth in 2001 03. During this tenure the deposits rose almost by a 100 percent. The competition is high in the industry with the presence of local and foreign banks. Almost a decade ago, opportunities for foreign banks, especially in consumer and retail banking, were greater  than ever before. In the financial year of 2004-05, the banking sector experienced growth rates of 21% and 36% in its deposit and advances portfolio respectively. This helped improve the stability of the banking sector as compared to 2003 04. (Pakistan Banking Sector, 2009) A significant shift of focus from industrial lending to consumer products has allowed the banks to enjoy enormous spreads. However, the manufacturing sector is still enjoying the highest share in credit facilities extended by the banking industry (Pakistan Banking Sector, 2009). Initially the banking sector was only catering to the needs of big corporations and the government. However after the reforms the sector is now entertaining the middle class as well. The industry was passing through a transitional period from long established patterns and norms to the unknown land of threats and opportunities. The following are the few areas in the banking industry which have witnessed change over the years: Diversity within the commercial banking industry The following segments have experienced change in the few years: operations, market focus, advertising, and use of information technology. The banks are now concentrating more on developing and establishing distinctive image as compared to their competitors. The banks are doing this by introducing unique products in the market. Intensifying Competition The competition in the banking industry has deepened over the years. It has become fierce over the years. There are a few factors who have contributed to the increasing competition. Increased consumer awareness about the different products and services being offered by the banks has increased the competition. The banks in such a situation can no more enjoy saving the deposits of the consumers at lower rates. Such situations may actually force the banks to lend their money to customers which might have a high risk. Profit trends The ratios indicate a growth in the market. There have been a few dips in the market but overall the industry has seen an upward trend over the years. Soaring Loan Losses Troubled loans are regarded as a cancer for this industry. The quality loans are the ultimate goal for bankers in the 21st century. Mergers Mergers have taken their toll in this country. Over the years the country has witnessed many mergers for example Union Bank with Standard Chartered etc. The purpose is to hold on to as much market share as possible and to tame the increasing competition. however there are some setbacks as well for example, the economies of scale after a certain level of expansion no longer exist for the merger. Structure of the Banking Industry Pakistan being a developing country has a relatively low level of income. The required growth rate as a result is also low because of low savings. The standard of living and quality of life are terms still stranger to the people of this country. The foreign aids have been the bridging gap for us between our savings and investments. Nevertheless these aids have become the drowning forces for our country. IMFs main objective for Pakistan is to maintain stable exchange rates, multi-lateral credit system and international liquidity in order to recover from its worst economic crisis. (Pakistan Banking Sector, 2009) Structure of the Pakistani banking sector has substantially changed in the last decade,  particularly following the privatization of the state-owned banks. In 1990, the banking system was dominated by five commercial banks which were all state-owned. The 1990 amendments to the Banking Companies Ordinance launched the process of  financial sector reforms by allowing privatization of the state-owned banks. During the first round of reform, two of the state-owned banks, Muslim Commercial Bank  (MCB) and Allied Bank (ABL), were privatized between 1991 and 1993. The reforms  process was subsequently delayed for several years and resumed significantly only in the early 2000s. With the privatization of the third large bank, United Bank (UBL), in2002, the domination of the state-owned banks was ended. As of September 2003, the asset share of local private banks and public sector commercial banks was 47 percent and 41 percent respectively. Another large state-owned bank, Habib Bank (H BL), completed its privatization n process in February 2004. As a result of this privatization, the share of banking system assets held by public sector  commercial banks decreased to less than 25 percent. The largest bank in the country,  National Bank of Pakistan (NBP), with a market share of approximately 20 percent, remains state-owned and its privatization prospects are uncertain at this stage, although the government divested approximately 25 percent of its capital in 2001-03. A lot of endeavor has been put in the sector in recent years to promote Islamic banking in Pakistan. Numerous conventional banks have also opened up their branches to provide financial services to the consumers. Lately, the banking sector has diversified its product base and carried out a lot of innovation. They have included different customers like the agriculture sector, SMEs, mortgage financing and consumer financing in their customer list. Not only that this diversified lending  portfolio mitigates risks but it also raises the purchasing power of a large segment of  population that was completely shut out from credit markets. Pakistans auto industry has expanded its car production by a multiple of five times in the last four  years as auto finan

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Essay -- essays research papers

One of the more significant or essential concepts in my opinion is communication. Communication, the exchange of information is a key concept because when information is shared in a constructive manner there is an opportunity for understanding and even acceptance in most cases. Communication develops a sense of trust and portrays a gesture of sensitivity which usually results in a more positive reaction and cooperation. Open communication is especially important when transition is involved. Communication will enable a smoother transition because all will be aware of the changes taking place and with some explanation may welcome the change due to the greater understanding the communication may have provided. When an organization withholds information it creates havoc and mistrust amongst the members of that organization. Communication may not always be negative; it is just as important to communicate when the information is that of a positive nature. Organizational effectiveness and efficiency relies on each member of the organization’s participation or contribution. An organization must identify what their goals and strategy are and recognize what their strengths and weakness are. They must improve their methods and practices to greater their strengths and evaluate the areas or factors that are preventing or weakening their productivity and overall progress and restructure or eliminate to achieve the organizations goals. This is one area where organizational learning...

Monday, August 19, 2019

Themes of Violence and Conflict are Central to Romeo and Juliet by Shak

Romeo and Juliet is a play written by William Shakespeare who was born in 1564 and died in 1616, during his time he wrote many plays which were prolific including Macbeth, Othello and The Tempest. Theatre in Elizabethan times was marvellous entertainment. Plays would be performed almost anywhere, the theatres were new and extremely popular places for people to meet up socialise. All sorts of people went to watch plays, from the poorest people to the richest. The poor people would stand at the front while the richest would sit down and watch from a more comfortable place. During 1592-93, Shakespeare wrote long poems instead of plays as the theatres were closed due to the plague. The people in this time were very religious and wouldn?t have allowed love stories or anything other than violence and conflict, this is why Romeo and Juliet is superseded with much violence and conflict which covers the love story in Romeo and Juliet. In Romeo and Juliet violence and conflict are very important as a result of the fact that two families in this play dislike each other and are feuding. This causes much friction in the play leading to a huge amount of violence and conflict. A prologue is an introduction or foreword which is used to prepare the audience for the violence and conflict in the play. This is done when it states: ?Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean? this informs the audience that a high class family?s blood is spilt by another high class citizen. Another part of the prologue states: ?A pair of star-crossed lovers take their life, ?Doth with their death bury their parents? strife.? This explains to the audience that two lovers kill themselves and when they die they end their parent?s trouble. Throughout Act 1, S... ...s is shown when she says: ?Talk not to me, for I'll not speak a word Do as thou wilt, for I have done with thee.? I think Shakespeare made his play violent because in those times people were very religious and they wouldn?t have watched his plays if they wasn?t violent. This is why he couldn?t write Romeo and Juliet as just a love story as that wouldn?t have been allowed in those times, therefore he covered up the love in the play with violence and conflict. The violence in the play has the effect of turning it into a tragedy due to the amount of conflict and the death of Romeo and Juliet. It also creates the image of violence being unfair because of the deaths of so many in the play and the tragic end of the two lovers. The violence in the play has the effect of exciting the audience, causing them to worry and think about what will happen to Romeo and Juliet.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Freedom of Information Essay -- Technology Computers Essays

The Freedom of Information There are different kinds of freedoms: freedom of expression, of opinion, of speech, of information, to copy, to own and to read, and freedom from interference and observation. This research is an ethical analysis of the freedom of information in the new Internet era and how the new technology should be implemented globally as a universal human right. Not so many years ago, I still remember in High School my research with books, magazines, and newspapers as the only resources to get information. When I did my undergraduate thesis in Direct Reduced Iron, I could get information thanks to my brother in law directly from the company that owns the technology. It is not possible to get all the information that you want from the Internet, because some are confidential documents or data with personal information, but there are people that find ways to access information illegally that is not open to the general public. These people called Hackers are not acting morally, because they are not respecting the people’s rights of privacy. This case is not included in the freedom of information mentioned in this research, but the issue itself is affecting in some way the freedom of information. Global Information Infrastructure Something that brought my attention to this subject was the speech of the Vice President Al Gore in 1994 at the International Telecommunications Union Conference about his determination for the creation of a network of networks to all members of our societies and his ethical analysis in Global Information Infrastructure (GII). The plan was based on five principles: Encourage private investment Promote competition Create a flexible regulatory framework Provide open access to the network Ensure universal service Now in 2003 we can see the tremend us benefits of GII in all the countries where it has been implemented. When I started to do this research I didn’t realize all the advances in communications this commitment made. Most of these advances were in the telecommunications industry with private investments and free competition in an industry that was in the past a monopoly. Each country has their own laws in telecommunications, and it is a universal right from an ethical point of view that each individual around the world has to have some kind of access to get information. Let’s say a li... ...f the person is literate or illiterate. Endnotes [1] Deborah G. Johnson and Helen Nissenbaum, Computers, Ethics & Social Values (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995), 621. [2] John Weckert and Douglas Adeney, Computer and Information Ethics (Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1997), 32. [3] Johnson and Nissenbaum, 622. [4] â€Å"Motivating a Human Rights Perspective on Access to Cyberspace: The Human Right to Communicate†. CPSR Newsletter Vol. 18, Number 3.6 June2003 http://www.cpsr.org/publications/newsletter/issues/2000/Summer2000/mciver.html [5] Richard A. Spinello, Case Studies in Information and Computer Ethics (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1997), 249. Bibliography Hester, D. Micah, and Paul J. Ford. Computers and Ethics in the Cyberage. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2001. Johnson, Deborah G. Computer Ethics. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985. Johnson, Deborah G. and Helen Nissenbaum. Computers, Ethics & Social Values. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995. Spinello, Richard A. Case Studies in Information and Computer Ethics. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1997. Weckert, John and Douglas Adeney. Computer and Information Ethics. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1997.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Martin Johnson Heade Essay

Martin Johnson Heade (originally Heed), the eldest son in a large family of Joseph Howell Heed was born on 11th August, 1819 in Lumberville, a small rural location near Doylestown in Bucks country of Pennsylvania (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 1). His father owned a farm and a lumber mill. His life is said to have been influenced by the two cousins, Thomas Hicks and Edward Hicks who probably taught him his first art lessons locally. His passion for art grew considerably in the 1840s, and it is around this time that he took a study tour to England and stayed in Rome Italy for two years. By the year 1843, he was residing in New York and later moved to Brooklyn, where he changed his name to Heade, and later on moved to Philadelphia (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 2). In 1848, he took his second academic European tour to return later in 1850. The second trip did not leave him settled either, as he continued to travel while settling down briefly in the towns of St. Louis, New Haven and Providence. It was in this decade that he deeply studied and explored the effects of light on the environment, a subject that was equally dear to American Luminists Sanford Gifford, John Kensett C as well as Fitz Lane Hugh. Consequently he fully got into landscape painting (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 2). In 1859, he rented a studio in the famous tenth street studio building in New York and became a full time painter (Lurie and Mappen, Pp. 355. ) It is in relation to this that he is remembered for his flora, fauna and landscape paintings that do not only have a rich effect of color and light but could also portray some poetic sentiments. Its while operating from the same studio that he met Fredric Edwin Church from the Hudson River school who was later to become his close friend and associate. This period is seen as the turning point in his life as it signaled the onset of his unique lifestyle and a lasting interest in landscape and paintings. In 1863, he interpreted the chaste Latin American coastal landscape in a unique manner and later toured Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in the same year (Hollis Taggart Galleries Para 3). The goal of the tour was to illustrate a complete different version of South American Hummingbirds. He was so enthusiastic about the Hummingbirds that he hoped to prepare an outstanding and an elegant album about these creatures in Britain. Though he hoped to have this album published in Britain, it was never to happen. Hummingbirds however continued to be a dear subject to him as evidenced by the paintings that he did in the rest of life. He continued making trips to the Latin America notably in Nicaragua, Colombia, Jamaica and Panama. In the course of those visits, he studied the local flora and fauna, painting both large and small landscapes of hummingbirds and orchids, works that saw him get recognition at the gallery exhibition in New York and Boston. At the age of sixty four in 1883, Heade got married and moved to St Augustine in Florida. This is where he was to spend the rest of his life while he continued to exhibit his paintings in northern towns such as Boston and Springfield Massachusetts. He was almost forgotten in the New York City but was later rediscovered during the revival of the Hudson River painting school and has from then on been accorded the respect and major status that he commanded out of his outstanding work. In Florida, an oil tycoon and hotel magnate Henry Morris Flagger invited Heade to set up another studio, which was to be last studio, in a building behind Ponce De Leon, a hotel that was owed by Flagger in St Augustine. In his two decades stay at St Augustine prior to his death on September 4 1904, he continued to paint while fascinated by the flora and fauna located in Florida. His works were mainly Cherokee roses, orchids and magnolias (Hollis Taggart Galleries, Para. 4). The works could often depicted the same flower over and over again but in different blooming states thus bringing out the hidden beauty of the environment that is not obvious to many. During his stay in St Augustine Florida and prior to his death, Heade made more than one hundred and fifty pieces of work . Most of this work focused on the exuberant nature and landscape, flowers, sceneries and fruits of the American south , topics that were dear to him also. It is against this background that he is remembered, having not only taken a lot if interest in a rare subject but also having pursued it with vigor, passion and up to the old age. He did what he liked most and did it best. The outstanding feature of any artistic work done by Heade is their capture of their botanic and scientific accuracy. They note every line on the leaf, every mark on the facet, fruit or blossom. The figures below are example of the artistic work done by the 19th century artist and depict the mystery surrounding him and his interest in the natural world. Though the work was done more than a century ago, the beauty and elegance has surpassed the passage time. Fig. 1 Source: http://www. martin-johnson-heade. org/ Although little is documented in writing about Martin Johnson Heade as he left no identifiable body of writing, his contribution to the field of art and painting is immense. Such is evidenced by the Martin Johnson Heade, a function organized and premiering at the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) in Boson from the 29th day of September 1999 through the 17th of January 2000 which shed light on Martin Johnson Heade as one of the most original and all time artists in the history of mankind (Traditional Fine Art Online Inc, Para. 1). MFA owns an outstanding collection of work done by Heade including about 30 paintings, numerous drawings and other materials such as sketches and sketch books that he used. Although he was practically unknown during his own days, Heade is today also recognized in America as a great romantic painter and uniquely as a master landscape painter as far as floral still life is concerned. With a career that spanned over seventy years, a lot went to his name’s credit as noted during the function organized by MFA, having produced a varied body of work more than any other American artist of the 19th century. â€Å"Martin Johnson Heade is sure to give new insights into the work of one of the most intriguing of American artists, whose paintings have a strange and almost surreal intensity. Heade was one of America’s most productive and inventive artists, and his work reflects a wide range of talent and creativity. The exemplary work captures such a variety of moods, from his atmospheric effects, the glory of light, the sumptuous warmth of his orchids and tropical scenes, and the inexplicable sensuality of so many of his works in every genre. I hope recognition of his genius grows as more and more people are introduced to these superb paintings† (Traditional Fine Art Online Inc, Para. 6). During the popular Mesueum of Fine Arts event, Heade’s favourite hummingbirds painting was revisited. It was recounted that even if he never managed to secure the two hundred subscriptions needed to print his expensive book, which was never printed anyway, he produced four hummingbird chromolithographs for the book and could at the time be viewed in Boston as well as the sixteen paintings that were intended for the gems of Brazil from the Manoogian collection (Traditional Fine Art Online Inc, Para. 7). Earlier on in 1955, a historian and the then director of Macbeth gallery Robert Mclntyre had donated some work done by Heade to the Archives of American Art. Such included his sketch book, notebooks as well as letters and correspondeces between him and his close friend and associate Fredric Edwin Church between the year 1866 and 1899. In addition, they included a detailed notebook about hummingbirds that is handwritten as well as a circa dated in the range between 1853 to 1877. The scattred papers measure 0. 3 linear feet and date between 1853 and 1904. In the year 2007, the above were completely digitized to enhance archiving and are now avilable online as the Martin Johnson Heade Papers Online. They had first received a preliminary level of processing immediately after donation before being microfilmed in the same order that they were donated. The notebook and the sketchbook being the first ones to have been donated were therefore proffesionally conserved in the year 2004. Another area that is seen to have captured Heade’s passion is still lifes of southern flowers especially the magnolia blossoms laid on velevet. This was an advancement of an interest that he had since the 1860’s. In his earlier work in this genre, he had done flowers keenly arranged in an ormate flower vase and placed either on small or a large table, but covered with a mere cloth as opposed to velvet. At the time, he was the first and the only american artist who could create such an extensive body of work either in still lifes or in landscape and environment. In 2004, Heade was again recognized and honored with an outstanding stamp from the United States Postal Servive featuring a piece of his 1890 oil-on-canvas painting otherwise called Giant magnolias on a blue Velvet cloth. There were few artists who emulated head in the 20th century owing to the fact that he was unpopular at the time. However his work and art has been duplicated and forged by many especially in the 20th and 21st century. Such is attributed to the way his work has continued to turn up in garage sales as well as other unlikely places as opposed to works by other artists such as his friend Fredric Edward Church or ohn Kensett.. The popularity of his work can be attributed to the way he related with middle class buyers, his outstanding passion and effort put in as depicted in his various trips and his willigness to distribute his work all the country. Though unknown to him even at the end of his life, Martin johnson Heade was one of the most outstanding artist that ever existed on the face of earth. His passion in what was then an unpopular venture tells it all. His keen interpretation and approach towards the light and the environmet at large, his representation of the same on his paintings as well as his vigor and dedication to distribute his work, all leave no doubt that he did what he loved and in return loved what he did. His work does not only reveal what is unobvious to many but also unearths what is sincerely unknown and his spirit therefore continues to live moreso through his elegant work. Martin Johnson Heade is no doubt a legend whose life deserves recognition by and over generations while his work continues to demand respect over centuries. Works Cited: Hollis Taggart Galleries. â€Å"Hollis Taggart Gallaries. † 2007. 26 May 2010 . Mappen, Marc and Maxine N Lurie. Encyclopedia of New Jersey. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2004. Traditional Fine Art Online Inc. â€Å"Meseum of Fine Arts Boston. † 29 September 1999. www. mfa. org. 26 May 2010 .

Friday, August 16, 2019

Chocolate industry India Essay

Introduction The market leader of the chocolate industry in India, Cadbury, is a British subsidiary of the American multinational confectionary, food and beverages conglomerate â€Å"Mondelez International†. Cadbury, is the second largest confectionary company in the world, close on the heels of Mars, Inc. In India, Cadbury owns a market share of 66 %, significantly ahead of the other multinational company operating the same space for many years, Nestle India, as well as other national, international and regional brands like Amul and Ferrero. Cadbury India began its operations in India in 1948, and has been a trusted and favored brand for decades in India. The market share has decreased from 70-80% in view of entry of other international chocolate companies in the Indian market, however it is still significantly large. Cadbury figures in the Brand Trust Report, 2011 in the Top 100 Most Trusted Brands in India. While Cadbury sells products in several categories such as candy, gum, beverages and chocolate confectionary, this report is aimed at studying the marketing strategy employed by Cadbury India in view of its chocolate confectionary business. Some of the products in this category include the highly popular Dairy Milk, Dairy Milk Silk, Bournville, Temptations, 5 Star, Dairy Milk Shots, Celebrations, Perk and Toblerone. In order to analyze the marketing strategy for Cadbury, this report begins with a SWOT analysis of the company. Environmental Analysis Political Food Safety Act 2006: Detailed and exacting regulations, for standards of production as well as imported chocolates, exist in India. Opportunity. Cadbury is better equipped to follow standards in production than smaller regional or local brands. Strength. Expand into the rural areas before local or regional companies focus on the rural market. Import Tax Rates on Chocolates: A tariff rate of 30% is levied on chocolates. Opportunity. Strength. Demand for premium chocolates at affordable prices can be encashed before foreign entrants can grow their roots within the Indian industry by introducing and aggressively marketing domestically manufactured premium chocolates. Economic Per Capita Spending Patterns: The biggest consumption category in India is Food. Spending in this amounts to almost 21% of the Gross Domestic Production. People, on average, spend 31% of their budget monthly, on food. 70% of the food spending is on agri-products, which incorporates candies and confectionary including chocolates. Two-thirds of this spending is on processed products. Domestic spending on food is expected to grow at a compounded 3 annual growth rate of 4% and billed to reach approximately 320 billion US dollars in value within the next 7 years. USD 841 million is spent on chocolates and confectionary in India. Opportunity. In households across income groups, a large share of money spent goes towards processed agricultural products including chocolates and other confectionary items. This can be encashed by developing effective channels to reach out and sell to lower and lower middle income groups. Strength. Socio-Cultural Social and cultural acceptability of products: There is an increasing acceptance of chocolates as an equivalent of traditional sweets in urban areas. Chocolates are, however, still seen as a luxury food item in rural areas. Opportunity. Chocolates are increasingly being seen as an equivalent or substitute for traditional sweets in terms of the convenience it offers when used for gifting on occasions. Strength. Cadbury is already working on this approach to sell to urban consumers. Rural consumers can also be reached out to and offered chocolates as a new gift item replacing sweets leading to increased sales. Technological Constantly improving technology in chocolate making leads to better tasting products as well as more convenient storage. Opportunity. Strength. Cadbury has the financial capability to invest in R&D and has already produced products that are better suited to Indian tastes and storage conditions that other foreign entrants into the industry are not yet as well adapted to. Natural factors. Climate for Cocoa Production: Cocoa, used to produce chocolates can only be grown in regions 15 degrees to the north or south of the equator. Cocoa, originally a crop native to the Amazon basin, can only be grown in the southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. It is not a commonly grown crop. Threat. Lack or scarcity of domestic cocoa producers can affect production costs of chocolates within the country. Strength. Cadbury has encouraged farmers in Kerala to produce cocoa since the 1970s and is now in the process of promoting Cocoa as an inter-crop plant for coconut growing farmers. Successful pursuance of this connect with the farmers would help Cadbury procure raw material at lower prices within the country. Consumer behavior Age composition: 66% of the population is below the age of 35. Opportunity. It implies that a huge part of the population can be encouraged to take up consumption of chocolates more frequently and will be met with less resistance than that put up by older consumers with already set eating habits. Strength. 4 Competition Traditional Sweets: Very widely available and traditional choice, but inconsistent in hygiene levels and taste. Threat. Build on image of chocolates being a better and more hygienic choice, which adheres to food safety standards set out by the Govt. Build on image that chocolates are a more sophisticated choice for gifting carrying greater meaning than ‘mithai’ from neighbourhood sweet shops. Strength. Confectionary items like candies, cakes and icecream: Candies are easily available and appeal to children who have traditionally been the target consumers for chocolates. Threat. Cadbury can emphasize more strongly that chocolates are not meant only for children but for adults as well who may not prefer to eat candies. Cadbury chocolate can be offered as an experience, that is not replicated by eating candies and conectionary items. Strength. Entry of several foreign players: As India is seen to have a rapidly growing chocolate consuming country, with people willing to spend not only on inexpensive smaller packs of chocolates, but also premium chocolates as well, foreign players have started foraying into the market with the hope of establishing a presence in the premium sector at least. Threat. Cadbury can increase its foothold in the premium sector of chocolate industry by launching and promoting premium chocolate brands with higher cocoa content which could be priced a bit lower than the foreign brands. In fact, Cadbury is already in the process of implementing such a strategy through the introduction of Bournville and Toblerone. Strength. Suppliers Global network: Half of the cocoa sourced for chocolate making by Cadbury is from sources around the globe, including countries like Ghana, for its famous brand Bournville. Opportunity. Cadbury can source the majority of its cocoa from farmers in India through contract farming, while importing from foreign countries specifically for certain brands only. This will help reduce loss due to global fluctuations in cocoa bean prices and also reduce transport or shipment costs. It will also help create an even more positive image in the eyes of the Indian population. Strength. Dealer network: Cadbury has CSR activities directed at the farmers who are producing cocoa on contract for Cadbury in the state of Kerala. Opportunity. Cadbury is now in the process of extending these activities to farmers in 3 more southern Indian states. This will help cement positive relations between the cocoa growers and the brand, which may put it at an advantage when compared to new foreign entrants in the country like Ferrero or Mars, Inc. Strength. 5 Advertising environment Use of role models: Trustworthy role models in the media, when used as Brand Ambassadors, give a much needed push to the further acceptance of a product. Opportunity. Cadbury has been able to utilize this by roping in celebrities like Amitabh Bachchan, thus emphasizing the idea that even adults can have chocolates, since even a person of Amitabh Bachchan’s stature has not shied away from having them. Cadbury also has the financial power to rope in more high profile celebrities for the same. Strength. Availability of media and ad agencies: Several media channels like TV, Radio, newspapers are available for Cadbury to advertise on. Opportunity. Cadbury has been advertising its chocolates heavily throughout, to keep the brand on top of the mind recall. There have been innumerable ads by Cadbury that have long stayed on people’s minds and even evoked nostalgia, indicating a deep connect of the brand with the audience. Strength. Segmentation Cadbury segmented the consumer based on age. Till the 1980s, chocolates were seen as a luxury item which were eaten only on special occasions or used to reward children with. Despite being the market leader already at this time, Cadbury decided to reshuffle their marketing strategy and position chocolates as a snack and an everyday item of consumption rather than a special treat. In order to do this, the first step was to segment the consumers. Geographic or occupation based segmentation would have proven less relevant in helping raise revenues generated from chocolate sales. The segmentation was done on the basis of age. The existing segment of choice for Cadbury had been children up to the age of 14 who had been driving the consumption of chocolates until the 90s. The other segment that the consumers could be grouped into was the adult population. Targeting The decision made to target a segment is based on gauging the segment attractiveness of the segment. During the 90s, with a rise in the population of the 15-35 year olds, combined with a surge in income and spending power due to the simultaneous opening up of the economy, made the adult segment an attractive one and since then, it has been targeted by Cadbury. Being the market leader already, switching to this target consumer group was not a difficult move for them, in terms of channel attractiveness of the segment. The existing channels which served the consumers until the 90s, such as kirana stores, need no resource intensive special adaptations to serve the youth consumer group as well. Alongside this, competitive attractiveness of the youth segment was also high since no other chocolate company had targeted this consumer group so far. Although this meant 6 Cadbury needed to put in extra marketing effort to change the social acceptance of chocolates in this group, it also translated into a first mover advantage for them. Positioning Positioning is the decision of how the brand wants to be perceived as by the target consumer group vis-a-vis competitors. Cadbury has positioned itself to cater to specific needs and attributes that the target consumer group looks for. Cadbury’s objective was to engage the customers of the adult age group. In the early 90s, Cadbury had the leading share in the market but the volume of sales in terms of per capita consumption was very low compared to western countries. This was also because consumption of chocolate by children was strictly governed by adults and hence increasing per capita consumption within the children consumer group was not a feasible option. In order to widen the net of consumers, Cadbury had to increase the social acceptance of chocolates in the adults age group. This was done through the means of extensive and successively huge ad campaigns which eventually lowered the attitudinal barrier that existed. Cadbury had wanted to and has successfully moved from the perception of chocolate being a children’s product to a celebratory/gifting product, and more recently an indulgence product (For instance Cadbury Silk). In 1992, Cadbury launched a series of aggressive ad campaigns starting with ‘Real Taste of Life† which showcased adults eating the chocolates on their own and not in a parent role or buying it as a reward or a way to say sorry to loved ones. This included the famous ad â€Å"Kuch khaas hai zindagi mein† which showed adults enjoying the taste of chocolates on their own. Later on, Cadbury launched a campaign for Perk which said â€Å"Thodi si pet pooja† which emphasized the use of the chocolate as an any time snack to satisfy hunger, which was a marked shift from the earlier perception of chocolates. Later, to promote Cadbury chocolates as an alternative to traditional desserts, the â€Å"kuch meetha ho jaaye† campaign sought to change perceptions once again, this time including the entire family consisting of elderly grandparents also in the ad to show acceptance of the Cadbury chocolates as dessert. By tying chocolates to Indian customs, and festivals, like Celebrations especially for Raksha Bandhan and Diwali, Cadbury has come a long way from the â€Å"Real Taste of Life† campaign, and â€Å"Indianized† itself in order to entrench itself within the minds of the adult population in India. Marketing Mix – 4 Ps Product/Service Product There are four types of products by Cadbury India, and this report is focused on the Chocolates category. These aim to satisfy the hunger need as well as relaxation and convenience need (easily available snacking option). In order to satisfy these needs, the 7 product is available very easily, at least in the urban markets and in various sizes. Cadbury chocolates are branded so as to represent some emotional core values like family values, and togetherness, but at the same time, they are also branded as a fresh, satisfying, convenient product. Place Cadbury has 6 company-owned manufacturing facilities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Thane Induri (Pune) Malanpur (Gwalior) Bangalore Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) Hyderabad There are 4 sales offices, one each in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The corporate office is in Mumbai. In terms of distribution, Cadbury chocolate products are sold directly to wholesalers and retailers. The network comprises roughly 2100 distributors and 4,50,000 retailers. The chocolates are sold through Kirana stores, gift stores, medical stores, canteens, paan shops, bakeries and so on. Price The generally established price point for chocolates in India is Rs 5 and Cadbury has 4 products at this point including Dairy milk, 5 star, gems and perk. This price point accounts for half of chocolate sales in India. At the same time, Cadbury sells multiple differently sized packs on a range of prices, going up to higher, premium priced products as well such as Bournville. In this way, Cadbury has a hold on various price points available to various groups of consumers based on their appetite for spending. Promotion Cadbury promotes its products through various media channels. It uses mainly television ads with strongly featured taglines that get associated with the products easily. There is some amount of seasonality in the market in the way that demand ideally goes up during festive season due to gifting needs and Cadbury launches special ad campaigns around those times to encash on this increased demand. National level competitors like Amul have been unable to match up to the scale of promotions undertaken by Cadbury. Regional players hardly advertise on a big scale through campaigns. However, its MNC competitor Nestle has its own promotional ads and campaigns that seek to rival Cadbury’s and sometimes directly challenge the Cadbury ads. 8 Recommendations 1. In view of the recent entry of foreign players in the market, though Cadbury does not face the threat of losing a significant amount of its existing customers, for instance, those who buy Dairy Milk or Perk, there is a possibility of losing out on potential customers who are interested in premium chocolates. Since this is a rapidly growing industry, and being the established market leader, Cadbury should focus on its premium chocolate brands in a big way through more visible ad campaigns and promote their products based on the brand equity they have built through the years. 2. While leveraging the lower cost of Cadbury premium chocolates vis-a-vis foreign chocolates, Cadbury must take care to ensure it does not go the Tata Nano way, as lower prices in the premium segment may be perceived as lower quality in the product delivered as well. 3. As it has already managed to successfully position chocolates as a snack for children’s as well as adults’ consumption, it can now focus on activating the elderly consumer segment which is typically more resistant to chocolates compared to traditional sweets and feel guilty on indulging in chocolates even if not restricted by health reasons. 4. Cadbury can now change the positioning of certain specific products or introduce new products to cater to â€Å"instant energy† giving needs similar to Mars bars abroad. 5. Recently, a 20-calorie chocolate has been developed in the UK which is now being sold at Michelin starred restaurants. Cadbury can also direct some of its R&D endeavors towards developing a similar product which would give the company a distinct edge over competitors and help tap into a new markets and increase their consumer width. 9 NATIONAL BRAND 10 Introduction Amul is an Indian dairy Co-operative based out of Anand in Gujarat. The co-operative started off as the Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers Union in December 1946. The Co-operative was set up by the milk producers of the Kaira district of Gujarat who felt cheated by the unfair trade practices. The co-operative collected processed and marketed milk and was co-owned by the milk producing farmers of the district. The brand Amul was used by the Kaira District Co-operative to market its brand of milk products. By the 1970s the Co-operative model had become highly successful and spawned similar Co-operative in other district s of Gujarat. In order to combine together and expand their market while not competing with each other, the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), an apex marketing body of these district co-operatives was set-up in 1973. The brand name of Amul which was held by the Kaira Union was transferred to GCCF. Today, the GCCF is the largest food product marketing organisation of India. The co-operatives collect around 10 million litres of milk per day from around 3 million milk producer members of the Co-operative. Its current turnover is around Rs. 140. 0 billion. Amul started producing and marketing chocolates in 1970. It currently markets 6 different chocolate brands namely Congtas, Fundoo, Chocozo, Bindaaz, Rejoice, Almond Bar, Fruits and Nut and Amul Cooking Chocolate. Current market share of Amul chocolates is just 4% as compared to market leader that is 66%. The main reason behind such low market share is lack of promotion and more focus on dairy products. Environmental Analysis Strengths ? ? ? Raw material (milk) security: Major raw materials for the production of chocolates are Cocoa, milk and sugar. Milk supply is secured for the company which protects it from any volatility in prices. High brand awareness: Amul through its concerted marketing over the last 5 decades has created a brand that is synonymous with good quality. The brand has also become a symbol of successful Indian entrepreneurship that has positively impacted the lives of millions of small farmers, hence there is a sense of patriotism and pride associated with the brand as well. Strong distribution network: Amul has been marketing and supplying milk through a pan India distribution network which supplies milk and milk products to independent retailers but also to its own milk parlours. 11 Weakness: ? ? ? Low market share: Amul chocolates have a low market share in the Indian chocolate industry. The brand, though having a strong recall value, is not primarily associated with chocolates. The market leader in the chocolate industry in India is Cadbury with 70% market share followed by Nestle at 20% market share. Co-operative structure of Amul: Due to the Co-operative nature of GCMMF, there is limited capital infusion in the company. As a result there is a limited scope for aggressive product launches or diversification. Volatility in Cocoa prices: Unlike the major chocolate producing companies in the world, Amul does not own a cocoa plantation. The prices of cocoa are volatile in nature as they are dependent on the international demand supply dynamics. Not having a cocoa plantation of its own exposed the company to volatility in prices of this raw material. Opportunities: ? Huge untapped market: The per capita consumption of chocolate in India has increase from 40 gm per person in 2005 to around 110 gm per person currently. Though this is impressive growth in itself it is still much lower than the per capita chocolate consumption, in countries like Ireland or Belgium which have a chocolate consumption per person of more than 11 kilograms or even USA or Australia which have chocolate consumption per person of around 5 kilograms. There is thus a huge untapped market for growth in the chocolate industry in India. Corresponding Strength: Since Amul has a strong â€Å"Brand awareness†, people would be willing to buy new products launched under its brand name. Amul can launcha variety of new chocolate products for youth and kids. ? Gifting: Gift hampers consisting of chocolates has been a successful marketing strategy by companies like Cadbury. Amul too has the ‘Rejoice’ brand especially for this purpose however there is scope to launch or aggressively advertise this. Corresponding Strength: Since, Amul is a strong brand name and has a strong distribution network, It can very well advertise the gift packs like rejoice and can introduce new brands catering to the same need. ? Advertising: Amul need to advertise and carry out lot of promotional activities to inform the consumers that still exist and can provide them with what they want. It’s been years that Amul’s chocolate advertisement has been telecasted on India’s major television channels. Sales promotions like discounts and free samples can also help them to increase the Brand awareness and attract customers to switch brand from competitors. Big brands use a celebrity as a Brand Ambassador for its product. 12 For example Amitabh Bachchan for Cadbury & Rani Mukherjee for Nestle, Amul can also use a brand ambassador for the promotion of its chocolates. Corresponding Strength: Amul has a huge turnover of around Rs 140 billion and is a financially strong company and has enough funds to carry out the needed advertising campaign and promotions. By spending a small percentage of revenue on advertising campaigns Amul can increase its market share to a large extent. ? Low rural penetration of chocolates: There is significant awareness of the Amul brand even in rural India. The company can leverage these launch cheaper brands targeted at the rural segment which has till now stayed away from chocolate consumption. Corresponding Strength: Amul has been marketing and supplying milk through a pan India distribution network. It has a strong distribution network in rural areas. Amul can leverage this strength and can launch cheaper products in rural market. Threats: ? Strong competition from foreign multi nationals: There is significant potential in the Indian chocolate industry which has been attracting international competition. Companies like Cadbury have been launching premium swiss chocolate brands. Also other premium chocolate brands like Ferrero Rocher are making their presence felt in India. Corresponding Weakness: Since â€Å"Amul† is mostly related to its milk products and has not made its presence felt strongly in the chocolate industry, its still far behind its competitors like Cadburys which is a very aggressive player in the chocolate industry. Amul faces tough competition and to handle the same it needs enormous marketing and advertising campaign and introduction of new chocolate products under its brand name. ? Low brand loyalty in chocolate industry: Chocolates are impulse purchases and compete with categories of soft drinks, snacks and other beverages. Although people may like a particular type of chocolate (dark, milk, white, etc. ) there is not a significant brand loyalty. Hence this presents a threat to established players in the market. Corresponding Weakness: Since Amul has significantly low popularity in chocolate industry and also people are picky while selecting a chocolate, there is not a single chocolate brand product under its brand which enjoys strong loyalty from consumer side. Also, people like to try different kinds of chocolates and are not necessarily inclined towards a single chocolate product. Since, Amul does not offer a large variety of chocolates; therefore it is at a weaker position in the chocolate industry. 13 Segmentation Geographic segmentation: Chocolate consumption is concentrated in urban areas of the country. Chocolate consumption in rural areas of the country may be considered negligible. Chocolates are still considered as a luxury product by the population and are hence consumed by the middle and the upper classes of society which reside in the towns, cities and metropolitan centres of the country. Amul chocolates are thus marketed in these areas of the country. Demographic segmentation: Amul chocolates are mostly segmented its consumers into various age groups like the children, adolescent and youth segments of the society. Since, chocolates are particularly liked by children and middle aged and older generations refrain from eating it citing health concerns due to high sugar content of chocolates. Targeting The brands of Amul chocolates like Fundooz, Bindaaz, Congrats etc. have been named to be attractive to the younger generation who use these words in their daily lexicon. There has been a strategy by the company to provide a young, dynamic and fun loving character to its chocolate through such branding. Amul chocolates also markets two brand namely Amul Cooking Chocolate which is targeted towards the homemakers and professional cooks and chefs. Positioning Positioning is the decision of how the brand wants to be perceived as by the target consumer group vis-a-vis competitors. Amul has positioned itself as an affordable, â€Å"value for money† chocolate. Since, it has mostly targeted kids and youth, it is still considered as a snack unlike cadbury’s product like Celebrations which is considered as gifting option. Amul has not positioned itself as an alternative to sweets or has not developed its product to actually cater to an emotional need. It is simply a chocolate available at a lower price. Marketing Mix Product Amul has a very low range of products in its chocolate business. There are only 8 chocolate brands that Amul offers as of now in the market and these are Congrats, Fundoo, Chocozo, 14 Bindaaz, Rejoice, Almond Bar, Fruits and Nut and Amul Cooking Chocolate. The problem is that there is no clear differentiation between the products that it offers. For example Cadburys is catering to a different need corresponding to its individual Chocolate product. ? ? ? ? ? Product Dairy Milk Dairy Milk Shots Bournville 5 Star Perk Need Milk Chocolate (Basic taste and style). Small balls of chocolate (Circular unlike chocolate bars) Dark Chocolate Sweeter in taste with honey as an ingredient Crispier with wafer inside However, Amul completely ignores such kind of differentiation between its products and hence their product can be easily substituted by their own products apart from the competitor’s product. Another important factor is packaging because majority of the consumers is kids and youngsters who like attractive packaging. Most kids buy chocolates not just because they like chocolates but also because of the attractive wrappers. Packaging used by Amul stands low on appearance parameter. Also, it lacks a common theme or â€Å"top of the mind† recall point. For example, Cadburys is strongly associated with blue wrapper and more than brown it’s the colour blue that we associate with a chocolate. As compared to this, Amul’s packaging is weak and lacks lustre. Amul needs to make changes to its product (chocolates) like introduction of more flavours and attractive packaging because the wrappers Amul uses is not at all attractive compared to those used by Cadbury and Nestle. This would keep them in competition with competitors like Cadbury and Nestle. 15 Pricing Second P of marketing that is Price is often confused with blindly lowering the prices of different products and completely relying on this strategy to increase sales. However it is of extreme importance to divide the target group on the basis of their price sensitivity and purchase power. Every customer segment has different price expectation from the product. To maximize the returns, it is important to identify the right price level for each segment and then progressively moving through them. Amul has launched various chocolate products to cater to different segments of population. Pricing must take into account the competitive and legal environment of the industry. Majority of people in India live in villages and have low disposable income. With such a heavy competition in the chocolate market, Price plays a very important role. Amul pricing strategy has been â€Å"Value for Money†. Amul’s believes in giving value for money to its customers and it has always followed that principle. Its products are of high quality and available at affordable prices. For example, Cadbury’s â€Å"Fruit n Nut† is priced at Rs 35 per 42 gm pouch whereas Amul’s Fruit and Nut is sold at just Rs 25 per 40 gm. Amul offers same quality at a price 30% lower than its competitor. Amul has not launched any premium (high price) product in its chocolate business. Place Place in marketing is considered as the channels of distribution through which products move from the manufacturer to the consumers. The channels of distribution mean intermediaries or middlemen who act as a link between the manufacturer and the consumers. Factors that need to be considered when choosing the place are the characteristics of the product, characteristics of the buyers, control and competitors channels. Since chocolate is an edible product, Amul should adopt an intensive distribution strategy wherein they will manufacture products and make it available at various shopping malls, food joints, local stores, Chocolate parlours etc. Corresponding to its strong distribution channels, Amul currently has very low visibility. It needs to increase the visibility through offering discount to retailers along with buybacks to convince them to store the Amul Chocolates. Since Amul is a â€Å"value for money† brand it can be placed anywhere from small kirana shops to big malls. Amul has a big brand name because of its dairy products. They can easily use it to increase the awareness of its chocolates using various distribution channels. 16 Promotion Promotion refers to exchange of information between an organization and the consumer of its products. Consumers here include Customers, shareholders, employees, government and other parties related to the products like trade union and media. The aim of promotion is to inform the consumers, differentiate from other products and to persuade them to buy. There are many techniques of promotion like Advertising, Sales promotions, Direct Marketing & Personal selling. Amul has been criticised for lack of promotion. Amul has a strong brand name because of its dairy product leadership. Amul must advertise its chocolates using media like newspaper, television and internet to inform the public about the quality & the price of its product. Amul has totally shifted its focus from chocolates towards milk and other milk products and have totally ignored chocolates. Using the mediums like Television and newspaper the company needs to remind the public that they are back with improved products at an affordable price. 17 Recommendations 1. Amul needs to introduce new varieties of chocolates and improve its existing ones. 2. They should introduce milk chocolates like Nestle’s Milky Bar, Chocolates with fruits and nuts like Cadbury has its Fruit and Nuts, Mint chocolates like Nestle’s After Eight etc.