Thursday, March 5, 2020
Transport in the Industrial Revolution During the period of major industrial change known as the Ã¢â¬ËIndustrial RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢, the methods of transport also changed greatly. Historians and economists agree that any industrializing society needs to have an effective transport network, to enable the movement of heavy products and materials around in order to open up access to raw materials, reduce the price of these materials and the resulting goods, break down local monopolies caused by poor transport networks and allow for an integrated economy where regions of the country could specialize. While historians sometimes disagree over whether the developments in transport experienced by first Britain, then the world, were a pre-condition allowing for industrialization, or a result of the process, the network definitely changed.Ã Britain Pre-Revolution In 1750, the most commonly used start date for the revolution, Britain relied on transport via a wide-ranging but poor and expensive road network, a network of rivers which could move heavier items but which was restricted by the routes nature had given, and the sea, taking goods from port to port. Each system of transport was operating at full capacity, and chaffing greatly against the limits. Over the next two centuries industrializing Britain would experience advances in their road network, and develop two new systems: first the canals, essentially man-made rivers, and then the railways. Development in Roads The BritishÃ roadÃ network was generally poor prior to industrialization, and as pressure from changing industry grew, so the road network began to innovate in the form of Turnpike Trusts. These charged tolls to travel on especially improved roads, and helped meet demand at the start of the revolution. However, many deficiencies remained and new modes of transport were invented as a result. Invention of Canals Rivers had been used for transport for centuries, but they had problems. In the early modern period attempts were made to improve rivers, such as cutting past long meanders, and out of this grew the canal network, essentially man-made waterways which could move heavy goods more easily and cheaply. A boom began in the Midlands and Northwest, opening up new markets for a growing industry, but they remained slow. The Railway Industry Railways developed in the first half of the nineteenth century and, after a slow start, boomed in two periods of railway mania. The industrial revolution was able to grow even more, but many of the key changes had already begun without rail. Suddenly the lower classes in society could travel much further, more easily, and the regional differences in Britain began to break down.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Personal Growth Influences - Essay Example This lifestyle, with itÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to a variety of cultures and ethnicities, has been the learning experience of my lifetime and has made me very much aware of the universality and basic oneness of mankind, despite differences of race, language and religion. It has made me a true Ã¢â¬Ëcitizen of the world.Ã¢â¬â¢ The extracurricular activity I have most enjoyed has been running track in High School. This has inculcated in me the passion to go all out to reach my goal, taught me that preparation is the key to success and has given me endurance and the hunger to win. It has also taught me to work as a member of a team towards a common objective and made me appreciate the camaraderie of a commonly motivated group and also the importance of physical fitness in life. The strongest influence of my life has been my parents. My Mother, who is a registered nurse at a retirement home, has influenced me to be sensitive to the needs of the economically and socially disadvantaged and also the aged and the ill. At her suggestion, I have been involved in a community project in which I have visited hospices for the aged over the weekends and spent some time with the inmates, reading to them (mainly the newspapers and the Bible) and helping them with their letters and other correspondence. I have come away from this experience with the certainty that society owes the aged a gift of security and inclusion. I have a deep admiration and respect for my Father, who is an International trader for a major American bank. He treats me not only as his son, but also as his confidante and friend. I am often privy to the information inputs which guide his management techniques and his responses to the various financial complexities involved in his profession. From his experiences, I have understood that the quality of life and the personal happiness of people all over the world is dependent on their financial security, particularly in the later years.
Monday, February 3, 2020
Multijurisdictional tax (Inbound taxation and Outbound taxation assignment) - Essay Example IBM Corporation pays a regular quarterly dividend on the stock. Your previous research concluded that Joe T. is a nonresident alien of the US. 1. Is the income received US source income or foreign source income? What statute did you rely on for your conclusion(s)? Facts Joe T. is a non resident alien of the United States who has invested in 1,000 shares of common stock in IBM Corporation. IBM is registered in Delaware, United States and does most of its business within the United States. The stock owned by Joe T. represents less than 1% of the overall value of IBM Corporation. Interpretation Joe T. is a non resident alien in the United States which means that Joe T.Ã¢â¬â¢s income derived from sourced within the United States are liable to taxation. Since IBM Corporation executes most of its business from within the United States, so under Sections 861(a)(2) and 862(a)(2), the dividends released by such businesses are considered as income being derived from within the United States. ... , since dividends from purchased stock do not fall under any exception based category under Section 871(1), so income derived from such sources is liable to tax. 2. If the income is US source income, is it taxable income to the individual (i.e., is there an exemption or exclusion available)? What statute did you rely on for each of your conclusions? Facts Joe T. is a non resident alien of the United States who has invested in 1,000 shares of common stock in IBM Corporation. IBM is registered in Delaware, United States and does most of its business within the United States. The stock owned by Joe T. represents less than 1% of the overall value of IBM Corporation. Interpretation Most forms of income derived from sources within the United States are liable to taxation even if a non resident alien owns benefits from such sources. However, under certain circumstances exceptions may be provided to foreign investors in the United States as per taxation on income. No deductions may be taken on a foreign investorÃ¢â¬â¢s income from sources within the United States if it is covered by either Section 873 or Section 882(c). Income derived from a United States trade or business is exempt for taxation for foreign individuals but this applies to gross income only which does not apply to Joe T.Ã¢â¬â¢s case. On another note, dividends are clearly mentioned as being taxable for foreign persons under Section 871(a)(1) which makes Joe T.Ã¢â¬â¢s income liable to taxation. Exceptions to the current rule exist if the source of the income derived from the United States is either interest from a bank or other fiscal institution (under Section 871(i)) or if it is portfolio interest (under Section 871(h)). Joe T. may be provided with some relief, but not a complete exemption, under US Model Treaty
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Napoleon Populist Autocrat Administrative Structure INTRODUCTION Napoleon Bonaparte was born in town of Ajaccio in Corsica, an island off the southern coast of France on 15th August 1769Ã Ã and by then Corsica was formally under French rule. History not only remembers him as a brilliant military strategist and commander but also as ingenious and able statesman, masterful administrator and lawgiver. Napoleon graduated from Ecole Militaire in Paris in 1785 and was posted in Valence in Southern France after seven years of study in France. He came to prominence after his participation in the Siege of Toulon by forcing the British navy to evacuate the port in 1793 and after defending the National Convention from the Parisian mob he wass promoted to Rank of Commander of Army of Interior and later he on successfully led French Armies against Austrian in First Italian Campaign. After successful Italian  and enchanting Egyptian  Campaign; his popularity, support of military and lack of political affiliations brought him to foreground of politics and he is appointed as First Consul of France following coup of 18th-19th Brumaire on 9th-10th December 1799Ã Ã . No sooner he takes the reins of France, he begins initiating reforms in various fields covering politics, civil matters, legal problems and economic situation. Instead of taking side of any political ideology or any faction, he chose a middle course by enlisting members of all the factions without considering their political affiliations but taking account of their ability and talent. This became apparent when he chose members of Council of State, Legion of Honor, Prefects, ministers and various posts in military hierarchy. This policy became the cornerstone for all appointments in France under his rule. By affecting Peace of Amiens  he brought brief period of peace when France was not at war with any state. It was during this time he brought about most of his reforms, changes, creations, enlargement and growth of different institutions of France. He brought an end to political upheaval of France by silencing the different factions and later on amalgamating them into his administration. The political system envisaged made him an all-powerful and brought about centralization of political machinery. He had embarked on the civil reforms that were to make him justly famous: the pacification of La Vendee, a successful fiscal reform, a better administrative framework, overhauling of educational system, successfully conclusion of Concordat with Pope and codification of laws of FranceÃ Ã . War again broke out in 1803, first with Britain and later other continental powers joining in the foray. Britain, Austria and Russia forming the Third Coalition threatened France, whereas Napoleon leading a coalition of Central German States inflicted crushing defeats on Austria first at Ulm [20th October 1805]Ã Ã followed by the crowning victory over Austro-Russian combine at Austerlitz [2nd December 1805]Ã Ã . This was followed by subsequent peace with Austrians at Pressburg and Russia at Tilsit. Prussia citing the reason of violation of neutrality of Ansbach by marching French armies declared war on France subsequently but was quickly and completely crushed in Battles of Jena and Auerstadt . On 16th July 1806Ã Ã , Confederation of Rhine was established in place of Holy Roman Empire. In 1802, national vote was taken for the Life Consulate of Napoleon, the result being 3,568,000 in favour to 8,374 againstÃ Ã . Two years later Napoleon completed his journey to autocracy: on 3rd May 1804Ã Ã Tribunate expressed the wish that Bonaparte be proclaimed hereditary Emperor of the French. The Senate and the Legislative body drew up a bill which then became an organic senates consultum. It was then submitted to the people for ratification: 3,572,000 voted yes to 2,569 nosÃ Ã . Napoleon ascended the throne of France with the title of Napoleon I, Emperor of the FrenchÃ Ã . On 2nd December 1804Ã Ã , he was crowned in Notre Dame Cathedral in presence of Pope Pius VII. On 17th March 1805Ã Ã , he was crowned King of Italy. Subsequently, in France, a strict system of censorship was imposed and espionage system was strengthened. Whereas other parts of Empire, namely Italy, Central Germany and Holland were subjected to heavy taxes and the French reforms were imposed in these states which slowly culminated in rise of nationalism and detestation of foreign rule. Freedom of Religion was ushered during this period, first by signing of Concordat with Pope  which healed the breach with the Catholic Church, then by granting equal status to Protestants as well as the Jews. Legal System was overhauled, by codifying the laws of France which dealt with matters ranging from civil to criminal laws as well as commercial law. This was a skillful blend of different laws present in France before beginning of French Revolution and the ideas of Revolution, where under the leadership of NapoleonÃ Ã , utmost importance was given to simplicity, lucidity and pragmatism. Four of the finest jurists of France of the date representing Northern Customary laws along with Southern Roman influenced laws worked to produce a codification of laws which has stood the test of time and is still is a law of France. The end of war against Britain nowhere in sight, Napoleon Bonaparte declared Continental Blockade against Britain which would result in complete end of trade with Europe. The Blockade will achieve its peak by 1811, when entire Europe accepted the Continental Blockade. To enforce Continental Blockade, he conquered Naples, Portugal and later Spain. Portugal and Spain involved France in long drawn out protracted Peninsular War which would continue till restoration of Bourbon Monarchy in 1815. When France was involved in Peninsular War, Austria forming an alliance with Britain declared war on France with hope of breaking hegemony of France in Europe. Napoleon smashed the Austrians and within a month occupied Vienna. It will not be until 1812 invasion of Russia that France supremacy will be disputed and at finally Napoleon will be defeated in Battle of Waterloo and later exiled to St. Helena. It was during this period, when Napoleon brought in administrative, civil and legal reforms most of which still survive in France as living testimony to the magnificence of work done during this period for France. Napoleon followed, Everything for the French PeopleÃ Ã as his motto, and this is reflected in his brilliant conquests and practical, down to earth but still long lasting reforms which he brought in France and subsequently in the conquered territories. In long run, most of these reforms will form the bedrock of French political, legal and administrative structure which at that crucial moment of French history provided France with stable, efficient and progressive government. French people hailed all of these reforms, and most of them are still part and parcel of French administration in modified forms. LIBERAL AUTHORITARIAN ADMINISTRATION: POLITICAL COMPROMISE, FLEXIBILITY AND NATIONAL STABILITY The centralized administrative system which has prevailed in France was the handiwork of NapoleonÃ Ã . Napoleon knew and very well understood the exhaustion and antipathy of people after a chaotic Revolution and an oppressive ancien regime. People tired and disgusted with bloodshed, constant change of governments, coups, political instability, extremities and constant danger of counter-revolution by royalist were longing for a stronger, efficient and stable government which would prevent decay of the system and preserve the ideals of revolution. The French during the Revolution had attacked the despotism of kings, the political inequality of many constitutions only partly free; the pride of the nobility; the domination, intolerance, and wealth of the priesthood, and the abuses of the feudal system, all of which were still rampant in most of EuropeÃ Ã . Napoleon understood the philosophy behind these ideals and hence went on to realize the goals and preserve the ideals of Revolution but only after ensuring political stability of France and safeguarding it from counter-revolution and internal strife. After a successfully taking over the administration of the France, he understood the situation of people and different factions. And rising above the factions and making merit as the spirit and substance of his rule he decided to usher an era of political stability, administrative efficiency and economic improvement. We have done with the romance of the Revolution: we must now commence its history. We must have eyes only for what is real and practicable in the application of principles, and not for the speculative and hypothetical. Napoleon, at Conseil detatÃ Ã Above statement gives clear picture of frame of mind of Napoleon and the people presiding with him. They understanding the sentiments of the people as well as need of hour and under the guidance of Napoleon himself went on to reorganize the government and administration. POLITICAL SYSTEM: The centralized government was divided into Consulate, Senate, Corps Legislatif and Tribunate. Title IV of the Constitution of Year VIIÃ Ã gave plenty of powers to Napoleon who was to be First Consul. Art 41Ã Ã of Constitution gave him the power to promulgates laws, appoint and dismiss at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other foreign agents of high rank, the officers of the army and navy, the members of the local administrations, and the commissioners of the government before the tribunals. Art. 52Ã Ã gave Napoleon the power to direct the council of state which was charged with drawing up projects of law and regulations of public administration and deal with difficulties which arise in administrative matters. Executive power was vested in three consuls, but, as first consul, it was effectively in Napoleons hands, the other two acting as advisers. Yet they had to work to a legislature. It rested on a very complex form of indirect election. Each commune voted a list of persons, numbering one-tenth of its citizens, deemed worthy to conduct public business. This list then proceeded to elect one-tenth of its number and these made up the departmental list. This in its turn elected a tenth of its members this was the national list. The choice of members was vested in a new body, the Senate. From this list first the Consulate appointed twenty-four members and these co-opted others to form a body of sixty. These sixty then drew up a list of 100 members for the Tribunate and 300 for the Legislature. The Tribunate could discuss or propose legislation but not vote on it whereas the Legislature could vote but not discuss it, and neither Chamber had a legislative initiative. That came from the executi ve, i.e., from Napoleon working with his Council of State. The power delivered to the executive was therefore immense, but it should not be supposed that the members of these bodies were nobodies.Ã Ã A senatus consultum of August 1st forthwith proclaimed Napoleon Bonaparte Consul for LifeÃ Ã , which was then put to the people in a plebiscite. The official figures were 3,011,007 in favour and only 1,562 againstÃ Ã . Napoleon now gained few and additional powers, he had the power to nominate the other two consuls, could appoint his successor. The three legislative bodies lost practically all their powers, those of the Corps Legislatif going to the Senate, those of the Council of State to an official Cabal formed out of it; while the Tribunate was forced to debate secretly in five sections, where, as Bonaparte observed, they might jabber as they liked.Ã Ã The victory of action over talk, of the executive over the legislature, of the one supremely able man over the discordant and helpless many, was now complete.Ã Ã With the establishment of Empire, Napoleon became all powerful with other bodies now losing all the powers. But as a prudent and cautious statesman, he referred all his acts to people as plebiscite. In his own words, The appeal to the people has the double advantage of legalizing the prolongation of my power and of purifying the origin. In any other way it must always have appeared equivocal.Ã Ã It was then submitted to the people for ratification: 3,572,000 voted yes to 2,569 nos. The Corps Legislatif disappeared and the Tribunate is not heard of after 1808. The Emperor was sole ruler.Ã Ã The Senate was brought firmly under the Emperors control and thereby ceased to exist as an independent body.Ã Ã The Senate had the appearance but not the reality of great power.Ã Ã By now France came under extremely centralized rule, which ensured till 1815 France safety from civil strife, revolt and any form of dissension from any of the factions present in France at that time. Also, Napoleon took only those into political posts who possessed talent and merited the post irrespective of their political affiliations. This and other measures taken by him to bring Democrats, Republicans, Jacobins and later Royalists succeeded to bring them into his fold. Also creation of Legion of Honor created a class of loyalists who stood by him till the end. Centralization of Power and creating a class of loyalists brought political stability to France at turn of century when political ideologies clashed throughout Europe. ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM: Entire Republic was divided into departments and arrondissements with each department having a Prefect, Council of Prefecture and Department General Council with Prefect enjoying absolute powers and privileges in the department while conducting day to day affairsÃ Ã . Napoleon while reorganizing administration completely eliminated elective system and appointingÃ Ã Prefects to conduct the affairs of the Department, while sub-prefects were placed over the new arrondissements and mayors over the communes. The mayors were directly appointed by the First Consul in communes with population of over 5,000 whereas Prefects appointed the mayors for remaining communes. The administrative machinery aided in maintaining control over different areas of the Empire, along with providing administration which was lacking for a long period of time in France. Indeed, so little was there of effective self-government that France seems to have sighed with relief when order was imposed by Bonaparte in the person of a Prefect.Ã Ã The Prefect was primarily the political agent of the Government.Ã Ã Vigorous censorship which was imposed in whole of France along with a complex but effective network of spies under the charge of Fouche prevented political opponents a ground to protest whereby maintaining political stability. The country was honeycombed with spies and informers and watched over by a vigilant and efficient police.Ã Ã Napoleon working with Cambaceres brought about the authoritarian structure in place and later in the days of Empire it was Cambaceres who worked meticulously while dealing with administrative matters. Napoleon took up the tasks of regular tax payments, law and order, education, military supply, regulation of grain trade, censorship and host of public projects which included tasks of various types from beautification of Paris with which Napoleon attached prime importance to construction of roads to connect all the cities of France with Paris and later their enlargement and maintenance. All of this was done and achieved and efficiency was insured by maintaining a network of spies, enactment of strict penal code  and Napoleon always giving precedence to merit over all other considerations while making appointments. The administrative structure which though has undergone many changes but has still survived in its essence till date in France. AUTHORITARIANISM IN DAILY LIFE: EDUCATION AND RELIGION Napoleon embarked on the civil reforms that were to make him justly famous, which all had authoritarian structure in place so as to allow Napoleon to adjust them to his wishes. This is very well observed in relation to his Education Policy and Religious Policy. Law of II FlorealÃ Ã which dealt with Education Policy to followed in France was passed on 1st May 1802, whereas Concordat and subsequent organic legislations which dealt with religious question were made in first years of his rule, which though provided general people with education and religious freedom hitherto unknown but gave Napoleon a supreme position over them and manipulate them to his gain. His prime aim while enacting Law of II Floreal was to bring education to common public and use it as a propaganda to improve his image and maintain control over France. Breach with religion and later persecution of religion during Revolutionary years had brought much unease throughout France, especially rural populace who were still devout, hence he decided not only to allow religion and tolerate different faiths in France but also to heal the breach with Papacy. This was achieved through Concordat and organic legislations passed by him over course of his reign. EDUCATION IN FRANCE: I want a teaching body, because such a body never dies, but transmits its organization and spirit. I want a body whose teaching is far above the fads of the moment, goes straight on even when the government is asleep, and whose administration and statutes become so national that one can never lightly resolve to meddle with them. NapoleonÃ Ã Educational System in France went under complete change. Schools run by Church which were prime source of education during ancien regime and which were closed down during Revolution were not substituted by an equal structure which led to abysmal situation of education in France. Napoleon desiring to bring an end to the abysmal situation and using it as a tool to achieve his end of making the future generations of France loyal to the state and him brought about an overhaul. The new educational policy aimed at creating a new loyal group of people and to fashion them as able breadwinners, obedient citizens and enthusiastic soldiersÃ Ã . Elementary schools were left to the control and supervision of the communes and of the sub-prefectsÃ Ã . The law of II Floreal, however, aimed at improving the secondary educationÃ Ã , which the Convention had attempted to give in its ecoles centrales. These were now reconstituted either as ecoles secondaires or as lycees. The former were local or even private institutions intended for the most promising pupils of the commune or group of communes; while the lycÃ ©es, far fewer in number, were controlled directly by the Government. In both of these schools great prominence was given to the exact and applied sciences. The training was of an almost military type, the pupils being regularly drilled, while the lessons began and ended with the roll of drums. The numbers of the lycees and of their pupils rapidly increased; but the progress of the secondary and primary schools, which could boast no such attractions, was very slow. In 1806 only 25,000 children were attending the public primary schools.Ã Ã But two years later elementary and advanced instruction received a notable impetus from the establishment of the University of FranceÃ Ã . The new University of France was admirably suited to his purpose. It was not a local university: it was the sum total of all the public [pg.297] teaching bodies of the French Empire, arranged and drilled in one vast instructional array. Elementary schools, secondary schools, lycees, as well as the more advanced colleges, all were absorbed in and controlled by this great teaching corporation, which was to inculcate the precepts of the Catholic religion, fidelity to the Emperor and to his GovernmentÃ Ã , as guarantees for the welfare of the people and the unity of France. For educational purposes, France was now divided into seventeen AcademiesÃ Ã , which formed the local centres of the new institution. Thus, from Paris and sixteen provincial Academies, instruction was strictly organized and controlled; and within a short tim e of its institution (March, 1808), instruction of all kinds, including that of the elementary schools, showed some advance. In realm of exact and applied sciences, splendid discoveries were made and it prospered. But literature and poetry took a back seat primarily because of lack of support and secondly because of rigorous censorship. In the end it served the purpose of Emperor, created a class of loyalists and exact and applied science made a long strides and France was to remain the hub of scientific studies for another half a century. CONTROL OVER RELIGION: Napoleon in order to decrease the uneasiness among the population took steps to reconcile Papacy, Protestants and even Jews later. He intended to use religion to gain support of the people as well as wield and attach them to his rule. On 15th July 1801, he signed Concordat with Pope in which French Government recognized that the Catholic apostolic and Roman religion was the religion of the great majority of the French people. It was to be freely and publicly practiced in France, subject to the police regulations that the Government judged necessary for the public tranquility. A new division of archbishoprics and bishoprics was now made, which gave in all sixty sees to France. Napoleon enjoyed the right of nomination to them, whereupon the Pope bestowed the canonical investiture. The archbishops and bishops were all to take an oath of fidelity to the constitution. The bishops nominated the lower clerics provided that they were acceptable to the Government: all alike bound themselves to watch over governmental interests. The stability of France was further assured by a clause granting complete and permanent security to the holders of the confiscated Church lands a healing and salutary compromise which restored peac e to every village and soothed the qualms of many a troubled conscience. On its side, the State undertook to furnish suitable stipends to the clergy.Ã Ã Napoleon made several laws under the plea of legislating for the police of public worship. The organic articles forbade the application of Papal bulls, or of the decree of foreign synods, to France, they further forbade the French bishops to assemble in council or synod without the permission of the Government; and this was also required for a bishop to leave his diocese, even if he were summoned to Rome. The regulation of the Protestant cult in France was a far less arduous task, Napoleon recognized two chief Protestant bodies in France, Calvinists and Lutherans, allowing them to choose their own pastors and to regulate their affairs in consistories. The pastors were to be salaried by the State, but in return the Government not only reserved its approval of every appointment, but required the Protestant bodies to have no relations whatever with any foreign Power or authority.Ã Ã In the years 1806-08 the position of Jews was likewise defined, at least for all those who recognized France as their country, performed all civic duties, and recognized all the laws of the State. In consideration of their paying full taxes and performing military service, they received official protection and their rabbis governmental support.Ã Ã Napoleon succeeded to bring the different religious institutions under government control and even controlling and regulating their affairs, so as to prevent them from rising up against the government and at the same time making people content. REFORM OF JUDICIAL SYSTEM I will go down to history with the Code in my hand. NapoleonÃ Ã Law for Reorganization of Judicial SystemÃ Ã was passed on 18th March 1800 making judiciary a simple hierarchy of courts. At lowermost level, i.e., for every commune there was a Tribunal of First Instance which was presided over by Justice of Peace which dealt with civil as well as correctional police matters.Ã Ã Every department had a Criminal Tribunal which had jurisdiction over all the criminal and correctional police matters in the department.Ã Ã Twenty-nine Tribunals of appeal were established throughout France to hear civil and commercial matter from Tribunal of First Instance.Ã Ã Tribunal of Cassation sat in Paris which was the final court where appeal could be made from Criminal Tribunal or Tribunal of Appeal which was composed of forty-eight judges.Ã Ã A single code for France was the dream of King Louis XI in the fifteenth century, of Dumoulin (1500-66) and Brisson in the sixteenth, of Colbert and Lamoignin in the seventeenth, and of DAguesseau in the eighteenth. The four last named made substantial contributions toward such a project Brisson, by his compilation of the ordinances in force under Henry III, Colbert and Lamoignon, through a more celebrated ordinances bearing the name of Louis XIV, and DAguesseau, whose ordinances on wills, gifts, and entails appeared between 1731 and 1747, and were through codifications.Ã Ã Before the outbreak of Revolution, Voltaire had tersely commented on law and order situation of France, stating Man did not often change his horse, as many as he changed law while travelling through France, which correctly gave the picture of law and order situation before Revolution. The parlements, being upholders of local customary laws proved another obstacle towards codification of law. During the Re volution, revolutionaries made many attempts to codify the laws to bring uniformity throughout France, but failed and when Napoleon took power, banditry was on rise and law and order situation had deteriorated. Napoleon with an aim to bring stability gave prime importance to reorganizing the judicial system and codifying the laws. The draft
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Shakespeare is often referred to as the greatest playwright that ever lived. His comedies have made many laugh, his tragedies many have cried over and romances that have touched millions. Shakespeare's writing although hundreds of years old are always relevant to our lives because that is what they are about, life. Shakespeare deals with all aspects of human nature and flaws. He greatly exaggerates a particular flaw in each of his tragic heroes. This flaw brings about their downfall. In the course of one conversation Iago convinces a man who loves his wife completely that she is in fact having an affair with one of his most trusted subjects without using one shred of proof or any real basis. This is a man who can make the most innocent of people guilty and the most loved, hated. He uses many tactics to persuade Othello that Desdemona is cheating on him with Cassio, the reason, is revenge. Iago is a very cunning and manipulative man. He is also often irrational and erratic. He will go to any means to get what he wants and in this case he doesn't mind ruining three people in the process. At the beginning of the play we hear of Iago's rage at the fact that Cassio was made lieutenant instead of him. Iago feels that he was the better candidate and deserves the position. Iago isn't hard pushed to find a way of getting revenge. Othello often says that without Desdemona he would be in chaos, Ã¢â¬Å"But I do love thee; and when I love thee not, chaos is come again. Ã¢â¬ Iago uses this, because he wants to create chaos, which is one of the major themes of the play. Other major themes include relationships, jealousy, love and deceit. Luck provides him with the opportunity to stage an affair between Cassio and Desdemona, driving Othello to insanity and resulting in the death of Desdemona and Othello. Iago becomes very jealous of Othello because of his position in the Venetian Army. He is also sexually attracted to Desdemona but that is not a real reason for hating Othello, his mind concocts stories which he believes are true and thus making himself think acceptable to take revenge on Othello by sleeping with his wife. Iago believes that Othello has slept with his wife Emilia, Ã¢â¬Å"leapt into his seatÃ¢â¬ , he wants revenge for this too, Ã¢â¬Å"not out of absolute lustÃ¢â¬ . He wants to sleep with Desdemona for revenge not just for pleasure. He appears to be sexually frustrated as he also presumes that Cassio has also slept with Emilia, Ã¢â¬Å"I fear Cassio with me nightcap tooÃ¢â¬ . Throughout the play he often refers to sex as lustful and nothing to do with love. This is emphasised in his disbelief that Othello and Desdemona's relationship is based on love. Through this we have to consider the reasons why he feels this way. Can he not love someone? He finds it easy enough to kill his own wife at the end of the play, yet is constantly reaffirming his Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ for Othello. We know he uses this as a tactic for Othello to gain faith in Iago, but could there be more? This plot is an obsession for Iago, his jealousy rules him. Could this mission be his only love? To understand how Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio we must look at the events beforehand which Iago directs to his own advantage. It starts when Cassio and Desdemona greet each other; Iago forms the plan that Cassio will be target. Cassio and Desdemona are friendly to each other and Iago can see how this could appear to be more than just friendship. Didst thou not see her paddle with the palm of his hand? Ã¢â¬ In Elizabethan times this was deemed as highly intimate and personal, this would have been an activity that only a couple would engage in. By claiming that Cassio was stroking Desdemona's hand, he is suggesting that they are a couple or intimate with each other. Iago sees the opportunity and uses his knowledge of Cassio to get him into a fight with Roderigo. Iago knows that this will outrage Othello and Cassio will want to redeem himself. Iago has planted the circumstances for Cassio to plead with Desdemona so that she will speak to Othello on Cassio's behalf. Iago knows that Desdemona will take up Cassio's plight for she is a good person. Ã¢â¬Å"I will beseech the virtuous Desdemona to undertake for meÃ¢â¬ . Desdemona doesn't realise that Iago is abusing her goodwill so that it will bring about her own downfall. Othello doesn't see it as strange that Desdemona is supporting Cassio for he knows what type of person she is. It is Iago that uses this as a basis for an affair between Cassio and Desdemona. Iago fools many of the main characters. He only gets away with this because they trust him and this protects him from any questioning. His cunning means that the events can occur, building the play. He uses this to his own benefit, talking Cassio into pleading with Desdemona and inducing Othello to believe that Desdemona is having an affair. Throughout the play Iago is described as an Ã¢â¬Å"honestÃ¢â¬ man, which to the audience seems ironic because really everything the man says they know to be a lie. Desdemona describes as, Ã¢â¬Å"o that's an honest fellowÃ¢â¬ , Othello thinks Ã¢â¬Å"This fellow's of exceeding honest,Ã¢â¬ and Cassio too sees him as honest, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ honest Iago. Ã¢â¬ It surprises the audience that the characters are so blind to Iago's faults but then we must understand that he has never done anything that could make them doubt him. He is an idyllic picture, a man who is loyal and trustworthy, they could never imagine that he is capable of deceit. Iago's effectiveness at noticing innocent situations and making them look suspect is another way in which he gets Othello to believe in Desdemona's unfaithfulness. When Othello first enters the room at the start of Act III Scene III, Cassio hurriedly leaves the room after speaking with Desdemona. Cassio does this completely innocently, he leaves because he doesn't want to annoy Othello any more than he has already, he feels disgraced and is ashamed, and he cannot face Othello. Iago successfully twists this situation- Ã¢â¬Å"That he would steal away so guilty like- seeing you coming. Ã¢â¬ Iago explains Cassio's guilt as that he has been sleeping with Desdemona. Of course the reader knows that is not true, but to Othello, the way that he hurries away, once pointed out to him by Iago, does look very suspicious. This is even more enhanced in Othello's mind when immediately afterwards Desdemona starts defending Cassio and pesters Othello to re-instate him. This combined with Iago's perverting of the situation looks very abnormal to Othello. Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona is sleeping with Cassio by very through very calculated steps. In each instance he builds on Othello's insecurities and his trust in him. He is successful in commanding the lack of evidence to his own advantage. Othello trusts Iago as he sees him as a loyal subject. Iago starts by questioning Cassio and Othello's relationship. He does this by asking suggestive questions, Ã¢â¬Å"Did Michael Cassio, when you wooed my lady know of your love? Ã¢â¬ By doing this he is making Othello consider their past and what effect it could have on the present. When Othello questions him further he refuses to answer a question directly. Ã¢â¬Å"Honest my lord? Ã¢â¬ By doing this it is as if he is trying to protect Othello, by keeping something from him. This will make Othello want to know the truth even more as it is human nature to be curious; after all we all want to know details especially if you know that really you shouldn't hear it. For Othello to believe in what Iago is about to tell him Othello must trust him. Iago needs to know that his news will not be instantly dismissed, he does this by the affirmation of his love. Ã¢â¬ My lord you know I love youÃ¢â¬ . This is his basis, if you genuinely trust someone you believe in what they tell you. Othello and Iago had fought together in wars and it is most likely that they had often held each other's lives in their hands. So Othello would never believe that Iago would turn against him so suddenly, especially as for the large majority of the play, Iago looks to be nothing more than a completely loyal servant to Othello. He refuses to tell Othello what he's thinking. Ã¢â¬Å"Utter my thoughts? Why say they are vile and false? Ã¢â¬ He doesn't want to say anything bad or untrue, after all he is Othello's loyal servant and would not want to hurt him. He also doesn't want to leave himself out for blame by playing this way he can say that Othello pressurised the information out of him even when he wasn't sure it was true. Iago is good at planting ideas. Ã¢â¬ O beware my lord of jealousyÃ¢â¬ . Iago suggests what Othello should be thinking and feeling. Even if Othello wasn't previously jealous because maybe he didn't believe fully, now Iago has told him exactly what he should be feeling. By warning Othello has in fact put it in his utmost mind. Iago plays on the fact that Othello is not of Venetian society. He explains that there are differences in social attitudes. Ã¢â¬ In Venice they do not let God see the pranks they have not shown their husbandsÃ¢â¬ . Othello cannot question this as he is from a different background and already feels compromised. Although when in Venice, he appears to be a strong-minded character, proves to have low self-esteem, this low opinion of himself may stem from being racially self-conscious. But some may argue that race would not have been an issue, it is more to do with the fact that he comes from a different society, an outsider who knows little of how their expectations. Although no mention is ever made of it, Othello views himself as different, which he is, from the rest of Venetian society. In was shock to everyone and probably even Othello that one of the most eligible women in Venice has fallen in love with him. So when Iago starts telling Othello of a relationship between Cassio and his wife, the rumours about Desdemona and the fact that she had refused men of higher status than Othello, Ã¢â¬Å"Not to affect many proposed matches of her own clime, complexion and degreeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ he believes it may be true. Also he reminds Othello of what her father said when he first found out about Desdemona planning to marry Othello without his consent- Ã¢â¬Å"Look to her Moor, if thou hast eyes to see: She has deceived her father and may theeÃ¢â¬ . To which Othello replies Ã¢â¬Å"My life upon her faithÃ¢â¬ . Much of Othello deals with pride and reputation, for Othello now to hear about Desdemona's unfaithfulness, after he replied so convincingly that he trusts her completely, would certainly start to worry him. After all, if what Iago had been telling Othello was true, then Othello had been made to look a complete fool by Desdemona in a very short period of time. Iago often uses very crude language and often refers to animal imagery. He belittles Othello and Desdemona's relationship, regarding it in its most instinctive form, a sexual relationship, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ you'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse;Ã¢â¬ Othello however approaches it as serious and loving relationship, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Nor to comply with heat the young affects in me defunct and proper satisfaction; But to be free and bounteous to her mind. Ã¢â¬ That is why the audience is particularly amazed that Othello resorts to animalistic images too. Othello refers to Desdemona as Ã¢â¬Å"haggardÃ¢â¬ , a hawk that cannot be tamed. He also refers to himself as a Ã¢â¬Å"toadÃ¢â¬ ; this is a far cry from the man who stood in front of the Duke and other important men of Venice declaring his love. Shakespeare uses this technique to show us that Othello has lost his confidence and is no longer self-assured. As he becomes more and more angry his control through his speech begins to slip, no longer does he speak in long flowing sentences but now in exclamations, which hints at his loss of capability to loose his temper. He is also speaking in a similar way to Iago, This may symbolise that he has come to think in the same manner. These images show us the depth of Othello's jealousy, the woman he loved he now disparage. When Othello begins to fall into the trap that Iago has set out, there is only one thing that would convince him completely. The principal method that Iago uses to convince Othello of Desdemona's infidelity is by using one of Othello's most treasured possessions and telling Othello that his wife, Desdemona has given it away to her lover, Cassio. The handkerchief was the first gift he gave to Desdemona, so it possesses enormous sentimental value to Othello. Finding out that Desdemona has given it away shows her as inimical. It must have hurt and angered him, after all the woman he loves and is married to has given away without a care for him, would almost certainly anger him, for in Othello's mind she has thought the handkerchief to be a meaningless piece of cloth. Iago tells Othello that he saw Cassio wiping his mouth with it, much like a rag. Ã¢â¬ I know not that; but such a handkerchief- I am sure it was your wife's- did I today. See Cassio wipe his beard withÃ¢â¬ . This enough proof for Othello to be convinced that Iago is telling the truth and for him to kill both Desdemona and Cassio. Within these three says let me hear thee say that Cassio's not alive. Ã¢â¬ And, Ã¢â¬Å"I will withdraw to furnish me with some swift means of death for the fair devil. Ã¢â¬ The fair devil refers to Desdemona. This oxymoron suggests that Othello still sees her as divine and yet he has lost his faith in her. Of course, the main way Iago fools Othello is by pure luck. That luck being that a lot of the things that Cassio and Desdemona say and do fall right into the trap and further convince Othello of a relationship between the two of them. When he first sees them together and Cassio scurries away, Iago jumps on the opportunity. Another example of this is found further on in the play when by controlling the circumstances Iago gets Cassio to talk disparagingly about Bianca, while Othello thinks the conversation is about Desdemona. The luck of this situation is gargantuan; one mention of the name Bianca and Othello would realise that Cassio was really speaking about her, fortuitously for Iago, Cassio does not mention Bianca's name once in the entire conversation. Shakespeare often presents the true feelings of the characters through soliloquies. Through Iago's soliloquy we see that Iago is an opportunist and amoral. The Moor already changes with my poisonÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ This line shows that Iago's plan is having the desired effect. Other characters in Shakespeare's plays have shown conscience to the fact that they are doing wrong, and have felt some remorse, we can see this in Macbeth's soliloquy, Ã¢â¬Å"First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, not bear the knife myself. Ã¢â¬ But Iago shows no wavering, he is convinced that this is the right thing to do, Ã¢â¬Å"Burn like the mines of sulphur,Ã¢â¬ he wants Othello to fall from grace as revenge for instating Cassio over him. It is most disconcerting to think that Iago almost takes pleasure from Othello's torment, Ã¢â¬Å"Nor all the drowsy syrup of the world, shall medicine thee to that sweet sleep which thou ow'dst yesterday. Ã¢â¬ Othello is the typical Ã¢â¬Å"tragic heroÃ¢â¬ that Shakespeare incorporated in many of his works, a man who sets out to do his very best, but through one flaw he is bought down. This has an enormous effect on the audience. The audience know that he is a good man, but circumstances are working against him, leaving the audience frustrated at his own idiocy for not realising and making the amendments. Often as the audience we feel like screaming at him for being so blind to the facts, we are drained of our emotions. Shakespeare intended this; he used the ancient Greek method of Catharsis. Shakespeare had to make the main character likeable enough for the audience to warm to him and suffer his pain, but still make sure that in the end his tragic flaw shone through. Othello's main flaw is his jealousy. Othello's other flaws are pride and gullibility. Iago however can not be blamed for everything; he did not murder Desdemona nor kill Othello. The characters must have a motive of their own and therefore is there not a basis for Othello to be pushed into murdering his wife? Many would say that by removing Iago the couple would live happily ever after, but mustn't there be a reason for why Othello was pushed so readily into murder. Othello acts like a confident man when in Venice, he has the support of his wife and men like Cassio. Remove the safety of that support and you would find a man alone in a foreign country which has different values and expectations, maybe in reality Othello knew that he could not belong in Venetian society and not with Desdemona. Our view of Othello progresses as the play develops. The first mention of Othello is by Iago; he presents him to the audience as someone with poor judgement as he has promoted the wrong person and through repellent sexual images, as someone grotesque. Yet others, like the Duke see Othello as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ valiantÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ From the beginning Othello is authoritative and confident, but without the knowledge that Desdemona is faithful to him, he collapses. Othello's lack of judgement is shown when he lets suspicion of Desdemona having an affair with Cassio take over his mind, stopping all rational thought. He asks the opinion of Emilia (Desdemona's handmaid and Iago's wife) Ã¢â¬Å"You have seen nothing then? Ã¢â¬ Even though she replied Ã¢â¬Å"Nor ever heard, nor ever did suspectÃ¢â¬ he does not believe her because his poisoned mind can't accept it. This is an issue that reigned in the Elizabethan times, people of his social status could not loose their power, it disrupted the hierarchy and made those below them feel uneasy. Society was very structured and those at the top would have a ripple effect on everyone below. We also notice in Shakespeare's plays that the tragic hero is always a man of position, Kings, noble men or army officials. This is so that they have a position to fall from, there would be no point in having an ordinary man in a story like this, the tragic hero is meant to be almost perfect, but not quite. This can be linked to the tragic hero King Lear; he is far too trusting and divides his country between his two treacherous daughters, which inevitably leads to his death. Through King Lear Shakespeare looks at madness and through the character of Othello he shows us how the people we surround ourselves with can create this. In the play, Ã¢â¬Å"King LearÃ¢â¬ , King Lear has to deal with betrayal by his daughters in a similar way to which Othello is betrayed by his trusted friend, Iago and he believes his wife too. Like Othello Lear looks for justice instead of the revenge that Iago seeks. Ã¢â¬Å"It shall be done; I will arraign them straight. Come, sit thou here most learned justicer. Ã¢â¬Å"(King Lear, Act 3 scene 6) it indicates that a desire of order and justice is starting to replace the chaos and thoughts of savage revenge in Lear's mind; it marks the start of his journey away from insanity. This insanity is similar to what Iago creates in Othello, he creates jealousy and through that chaos. All of the main themes are present in Act III Scene III. The fight of good against evil is represented in Othello's struggle with Iago. The theme of chaos verses order is shown through Othello's gradual recede in anguish. Othello's overpowering jealousy blinding him from the truth and Iago's revenge which bring about the chaos and evil. Despite wanting to kill his wife Othello's love for her still remains. In his soliloquy before killing Desdemona he states his love for her, however Othello thinks murder is the only punishment worthy of betrayal Ã¢â¬Å"yet she must die, else she'll betray more menÃ¢â¬ . Othello's jealousy is now at peak level, he still can't show rational thought and is blind about the true horror he is about to do. Even when he speaks to her and she denies ever giving Cassio the handkerchief he doesn't believe her, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, presently; therefore confess thee freely of thy sin; for to deny each article with oath cannot remove nor choke the strong conception that I do groan withal. Thou art to die. Ã¢â¬ It is ironic that Othello believes every lie that Iago fed him and yet cannot believe a single truth that the woman he loves tells him. Ã¢â¬Å"I never did offend you in my life; never lov'd Cassio but with such general warranty of heaven as I might love; I never gave him token. Ã¢â¬ After killing his bride he is brought out of his trance and realises the mistakes he has made. Iago's scheme is brought out into the open. Emilia brings out the scheme when the truth is told about the true goings on. At this point in the play Othello's heroic qualities are put on show for the audience once more. Ã¢â¬Å"Speak of me as I am; nothing extenuate, nor set down aught in malice: then, must you speak of one that lov'd not wisely but too well; of one not easily jealous, but, being wrought, perplex'd in the extreme. Ã¢â¬ Having realised the horror of the situation he takes full blame for his actions and commits suicide and lies next to his beloved bride to die. Iago is a man who is out for his own gain, and there are many people in our society who are like him. He is a character who knows how to direct circumstances to his own purpose, unfortunately the other character do not see this and are spun into his web of lies. By luck and tactics like planting ideas and evidence he is able to persuade Othello into thinking that Desdemona is having an affair and get his revenge. Through this catharsis we realise that in Iago Shakespeare has created that ultimate embodiment of evil and malice.
Friday, January 10, 2020
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